The Amazing Hebrew Language History Since Eden

NOTICE: This article reveals intentionally hidden truths and challenges some prevalent but false and unfounded beliefs.

As Adam and Eve tried to hide from God [YHWH Elohim] after they sinned, most of humanity today also tries to hide their eyes from many of God’s truths.

Let us start with an important question: Is it possible to trace the language God used to communicate with our first parents and with the righteous men of old? What was that language used in the Old World that extended into Noah’s time?

While some may prematurely disdain or ignore this topic for fear of finding the truth that may directly contradict their prejudices, the more critical question is: How important are the Hebrew people and their language in God’s eyes?

Direct Answer From the Testimony of Scriptures

Did you know that at least four verses talk about God considering the Hebrew people and God’s Law as figuratively “the APPLE of His [God’s] eyes” (Deuteronomy 32:10b; Psalm 17:8; Proverbs 7:2; Zechariah 2:8)?

Yet, until today, some have a negative attitude toward the Hebrew people, their language, and especially God’s Laws! Woe be to anyone who displeases God by their negative attitude towards God’s loving concern for the “apple of His eyes.”

This early in our discussion, let us consider the irrevocable fact that God [Elohim] spoke in Hebrew to the Israelites at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 20:1), wrote the Ten Commandments in Hebrew with His own finger (Exodus 24:12; 31:18; 34:1; Deuteronomy 9:10), and caused the Holy Scriptures to be written in the Semitic languages of Hebrew and Aramaic. And there is more to this. Please read on.

Talking about the LANGUAGE of the Semitic (descendants of Shem) people, let us first establish some logic about the inherent general nature of language.

Logical and Basic Principles Concerning Language:

  1. It is God alone who gave the language to our first parents at Eden.
  2. Language is always handed down from parents to children as a cycle.
  3. People take pride in their language and always seek to preserve it.
  4. Language use does not suddenly change, even after conquest by war.
  5. Language cannot be suddenly invented. God had to cause it as in Babel.
  6. Language may vary into dialects over time, but its origins can be traced.
  7. As civilization progresses, new words are added to the original language.

Origin of the Language of the Hebrew People

Is it possible to trace the original language God gave at Eden?

To answer this very important question, we need to logically trace step-by-step backward starting from the only available and reliably established biblical and historical source.

Obviously, we can only start as far back with the only survivors of the Great Flood from the Old World into the New, and that was none other than Noah’s family. They very obviously brought along with them that very same language they used in the Old World and into the New World.

Please remember also that God spoke to Adam and Eve, and to the righteous patriarchs of old. And that prior to the confusion of languages which only happened at Babel, the biblical record tells us that the people had ONLYone language and one speech” (Genesis 11:1, 6).

With this very important clue, what then was that ONE LANGUAGE AND ONE SPEECH brought to the New World by Noah and his family?

Let us dig deeper and intelligently trace further back into history.

Noah had three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth (Genesis 9:18; 10:1). Eber (ancestor of the Hebrew people) through a third-generation son of Shem seems to have been given some importance by being mentioned first among all of Shem’s sons (Genesis 10:21, 24)! And there is a very important and significant reason for this as we will see later.

Understanding the Confusion of Languages at Babel

Early in our story flow, some will immediately interject with the confusion of languages at the Tower of Babel incident. But herein is a very important, crucial, and pivotal fact that most Bible scholars, theologians, and students have missed out entirely and have NOT correctly reckoned with, resulting in present-day confusion, ignorance, and even deception.

The Most Important Key During the Tower of Babel Incident

This very important pivotal key factor to correctly understand is WHERE the Semites (Shem and his descendants) went to settle in after the Flood, in direct contrast to WHERE Ham and Japheth and their respective descendants also settled in after the Flood.

Please take careful note that the more righteous Semites stayed AWAY from the plains of Shinar! Instead, they settled far toward the “eastern hill country” (Genesis 10:30, NIV). Because the Semites took NO part in the rebellious building project of the infamous tower of Babel led by Nimrod (Genesis 10:8-10),their original Semitic Hebrew language (Noah’s original language) has NOT become part of the massive language confusion and corruption to the extent that they no longer understood each other. This surprising event happened only at the Tower of Babel construction site, which was at the plains of Shinar (Genesis 11:1-9).

As an all-knowing, wise, and advance planner, God knows exactly how to spare his more righteous people, with the goal of preserving their original Hebrew Semitic language, which God used to interact with His Chosen People, and as the basic language used in writing the Holy Scriptures. And furthermore, these people with their language was destined to be the bloodline for many more generations until the coming of the Messiah, with their language in His day.

A Parallel Account to the “Plains of Shinar”

There is a parallel biblical account when we talk about the plains in contrast to the hill country. This is the story between Abram and Lot, in connection with their herdsmen’s strife for pasture land, wherein Abram offered Lot the first choice. Naturally, Lot chose the well-watered plains of Jordan (close to the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah), leaving Abram with the only available choice of taking the hilly terrain toward the Hebron mountains. Of course, we know the rest of the tragic story when Lot eventually moved his dwelling into Sodom (Genesis 13:5-18).

Other Proofs that Hebrew Was the Original Language at Eden

The Wikipedia article on the Hebrew language refers to some other extra-biblical sources such as:

Wikipedia article on the Adamic language. In essence, this article states:

Traditional Jewish exegesis such as Midrash (Genesis Rabbah 38) says that Adam spoke the Hebrew language because the names he called his wife [Woman] [was] actually “Isha” [which] means “taken out from man” (Genesis 2:23), and the name [Eve] [which was] actually “Chava” [or hawwa] means “mother of all living” (Genesis 3:20) only make sense in [the] Hebrew [language] (emphasis mine).

The article on the Tower of Babel in the Jewish Encyclopedia says this:

The confounding of the languages—before that they all had spoken Hebrew.

The Proof of the Name Adam

In the earliest part of the Book of Genesis, God created the first man from the dust of the ground (Genesis 2:7; 3:19b) and appropriately called him “Adam.” Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance numbers that word “Adam” as H121, which also means “[red] earth.” The etymology of that name Adam, which means earth or mud, makes sense only in the Hebrew language.

New Discovery: Hebrew Is the Oldest Alphabet

Douglas Petrovich — an archeologist, ancient-inscription specialist, and professor of Egyptian history — made recent headlines when he found solid proof that Hebrew is indeed the first (and oldest) alphabet, contrary to the opinion previously held by scholars that it was Phoenician.

The story was quickly picked up by the following news outlets (among others):

Conclusion at This Point

Based on the biblical and extra-biblical evidences presented, plus the logical analysis done here, the language given by God to Adam and Eve — which also was the only language in the Old World until the time of Noah, and which Noah’s family brought into the New World after the Great Flood — was no other than what we now call the HEBREW language.

The Life of Abraham and His Descendants

After Noah, the next important biblical personality God intimately dealt with was Abraham. By this time, the name Hebrew became interchangeably used with Abraham and his descendants.

Abram / Abraham and His Descendants Were Called “Hebrew”

Since God has a long-range plan for Abraham and his descendants, including the then-future coming of the Messiah through his own bloodline (Matthew 1:1), God blessed and specially set him apart as a family, including the language Abraham’s family spoke — which was Hebrew.

Therefore, Abraham, a descendant of Noah through Shem was known as “the Hebrew” (Genesis 14:13). Likewise, because of their distinctive language and fairer complexion, Abraham’s descendants were called “Hebrew” as Joseph and the Israelites who later immigrated into Egypt were often referred to in Egypt (Genesis 39:14, 17; 41:12). Significantly, all descendants of Abraham as a people were also called “Hebrew” (Exodus 1:15, 16, 19; Exodus 2:7, 11).

Like all of God’s prophets, the prophet Jonah identified himself as a Hebrew (Jonah 1:9).

Hebrew and Aramaic Are Close Semitic Sister Languages

Aram, one of the five sons of Shem is the ancestor of the Aramaic people (Genesis 10:22). Both Hebrew and Aramaic are derived from the original language of Shem, who in turn got it from their common ancestor Noah. This Noah simply spoke what was later called “Hebrew.” [It did not originally have a specific name because there was no other language then — thus it did not need any identifying name, being the only language known from the very beginning of humanity in the Old World.] Eventually both Hebrew and Aramaic became names for the respective languages of these two families, which are both considered SEMITIC languages.

Since Hebrew and Aramaic actually share the same number of 22 letters in their respective alphabets — with anciently similar character forms, plus using most words in common — they have been interchangeably referred to by historians as either Hebrew or Aramaic.

But even earlier in the record of Genesis, because they came from the same Semitic stock, the Hebrew and Aramaic languages were also associated with Syriac, since Laban (brother of Rebecca, uncle of Jacob) was called the Syrian (Genesis 31:20, 24). Even today, sometimes Hebrew and Aramaic are often referred to as Syriac. Notice the footnote on Page 723 of the Aramaic English New Testament (AENT), Fifth Edition, published by Netzari Press, edited by Andrew Gabriel Roth, where it says: “Whenever ‘Syriac’ is used, ‘Aramaic’ is intended.”

Even “Chaldean” Is Also a Semitic Language

Chaldean is mentioned dozens of time in the Bible and also has Semitic origins, like Hebrew and Aramaic. In fact, Abram’s ancestry lived in the land of the Chaldeans, and thus his origin was in the land of the Chaldees when God called him out of that land (Genesis 11:27-31). These people were influential even in Babylonia, as we will read later in the story of the prophet Daniel.

The Hebrew-Aramaic Languages Were Widely Spoken

Hebrew and Aramaic Were Known Even in the Assyrian Empire

After the fall of the great Egyptian Empire (with its agriculture and livestock decimated by the plagues, and its army destroyed at the Red Sea crossing in connection with Israel’s exodus from Egypt under Moses), Egypt ceased to be a great world-ruling empire since then.

The next empire which subjugated Israel was the Neo-Assyrian Empire which took captive the 10 northern tribes into Assyria. This was completed about 718 B.C., after very many years of deportations over a very long distance of about 1,250 miles (2,000 kilometers). Those deported northern tribes are presently or commonly known in history as the “Lost Ten Tribes of Israel.”

But what is most surprising and significant here, is the fact that even biblical testimony shows that the Assyrians were knowledgeable in both the Hebrew and the Aramaic languages (2 Kings 18:26-35; Isaiah 36:11-20)!

Not only biblical history, but even secular history attests to this fact, but which is being ignored or hidden by some historians in a vain effort to rewrite the history of these Semitic languages in favor of Greek. Notice what the Ancient History Encyclopedia writes about Assyria:

Tiglath Pileser III had introduced Aramaic to replace Akkadian as the lingua franca of the empire and, as Aramaic survived as a written language, this allowed later scholars to decipher Akkadian writings and then Sumerian. The Assyrian conquest of Mesopotamia, and the expansion of the empire throughout the Near East brought Aramaic to regions as near as Israel and as far as Greece and, in this way, Mesopotamian thought became infused with those cultures and a part of their literary and cultural heritage.

[NOTE: Some historians want us to believe that Greek was the lingua-franca. But this historical document says otherwise. Greece was then influenced instead by Aramaic!]

Hebrew and Aramaic Were Also Known in the Babylonian Empire

Following Assyria, the next world-ruling power then which conquered and took captive the remaining southern tribes of Israel (primarily Judah, Levi, and remnants of Simeon and Benjamin) was the Babylonian Empire. The Babylonians carted off these remnant southern tribes in a series of raids, starting sometime in 604 B.C. and said to have ended in 585 B.C.

Again, very significantly, Hebrew and Aramaic were also spoken far and wide — reaching even into the massive population of the very first world-ruling Babylonian Empire of King Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 2:36-38; 7:4).

Please remember that during the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel and his three friends were among the noble captives then. Eventually, Daniel gained prominence in all of Babylon.

Therefore, you will notice that the writings of the prophet Daniel contained very long passages in the Aramaic language (specifically starting with Daniel 2:4, KJV, where it states that Aramaic was also interchangeably known as Chaldean or Syriac). The Aramaic language was used by the prophet Daniel in his writings until Daniel 7:28 where his Aramaic language ends; then, the language of his writings reverted back to the original Hebrew language.

Aramaic Was Still a Language After the Post-Captivity Period

The last Babylonian king was eventually defeated by the Persians. Significantly, Persian King Cyrus the Great (Isaiah 44:29 to Isaiah 45:1-13) was inspired by God to declare the emancipation of the Jews with freedom to return back to their homeland in Israel in 539 B.C. Knowing that the Jews became destitute in their state of recent captivity, God somehow also inspired King Cyrus to be generous enough to even help in every possible way in the rebuilding project of the walls of the old city of Jerusalem.

But what is most significant here again concerning our language topic is that even after the Jews returned to their homeland, Hebrew and Aramaic were still their traditional languages!

These facts are consistent with what the NIV Study Bible states on page 864:

Ezra and Nehemiah were written in the form of late Hebrew with the exception of Ezr.4:8—6:18; 7:12—26, which were written in Aramaic, the international language during the Persian period (bold emphasis mine).

In fact, an actual statement written by Ezra describes the use of Aramaic script in the Aramaic language in a letter written to King Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7). This shows that the Aramaic language was still very much in common use in the empire even after the captivities.

Effect of the Greek Conquest Upon Israel By the Seleucid Empire

Now, let us look at a completely different scenario. Instead of being exiled out of their native land, this time the conquest and domination happened right in their own land of Israel.

Quoting from the Wikipedia article on the Seleucid Empire, we read:

The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic [Greek] state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian Empire [which was] vastly expanded by Alexander the Great (bracketed edits mine).

Such was the case with the Jewish population of the Seleucid empire; the Jews’ refusal to willingly Hellenize [adopt Greek culture] their religious beliefs or customs posed a significant problem which eventually led to war … [eventually] the Seleucids gradually tried to force Hellenization [force the Greek language and culture] upon the Jewish people in their [own] territory by outlawing Judaism. This eventually led to the revolt of the Jews led by the Maccabean family, under Seleucid control, which would later lead to the Jews achieving independence from the Seleucid [Greek] empire (bold emphases and bracketed edits mine).

NOTE: This Greek domination lasted for almost 250 years (312 to 63 BC), a very long rule which ended closest to the time of Christ on earth, compared to the previous Babylonian exile which at most lasted only for about 70 years (Jeremiah 25:11). However, in spite of such very much longer domination right within the very land of Israel itself, and contrary to the false claims of most historians, the Greek language did NOT take root among the Jewish people!

Conclusion at This Point

The popular claim by most historians that Greek was the “lingua franca” or common language in Israel and in the surrounding regions at the time of Christ is now simply shown to be a great FALSE DECEPTION, and also without any historical basis! (More details on this will be covered in succeeding articles.)

The Roman Empire Also Failed to Dislodge the Hebrew Language

The following are quotes from the Wikipedia article: History of the Jews in the Roman Empire:

The history of the Jews in the Roman Empire traces the interaction of Jews and Romans during the period of the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 476).

Augustus [Caesar] was … the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. [He was considered] the most effective and controversial leader in human history. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (bracketed edits mine).

The Roman general Pompey … conquered Jerusalem in 63 BC … Julius Caesar conquered Alexandria [in Egypt, first] c. 47 BC and [then, in a struggle for top supremacy in the Roman Empire] defeated Pompey in 45 BC. Under Julius Caesar, Judaism was officially recognised as a legal religion, a policy followed by the first Roman emperor, Augustus. Herod the Great was designated ‘King of the Jews’ by the Roman Senate in c. 40 BC (bracketed edits mine).

Jewish-Roman tensions resulted in several Jewish–Roman wars, 66-135 AD, which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple and institution of the Jewish Tax in 70 and Hadrian’s attempt to create a new Roman colony named Aelia Capitolina c. 130.

The final Jewish uprising was the Bar Kokhba Revolt during the reign of Emperor Hadrian.

NOTE: During the earlier Roman rule, which includes the time of Christ on earth, the Jews were given freedom to practice their religion. If Latin was not even enforced by the very powerful Roman Empire, how much more for Greek which was already very much earlier rejected by the Jews? Therefore, contrary to the false but popular claims, Greek was NOT a common language in Christ’s day. Hebrew and Aramaic continued to be the language of the Jewish people in Israel.

The Extent of the Hebrew/Aramaic Language in the First Century

In Jerusalem, during the arraignment of Christ, Peter was betrayed by his Galilean accent of the Hebrew/Aramaic language:

And a little later those who stood by came up and said to Peter, “Surely you also are one of them, for your speech betrays you (bold emphasis mine).

Matthew 26:73

The Apostle Paul spoke to the religious leadership in the Hebrew language:

So when he [the Roman Commander] had given him permission, Paul stood on the stairs and motioned with his hand to the people. And when there was a great silence, he spoke to them in the Hebrew language …(bracketed and bold emphasis mine)

Acts 21:40

And when they heard that he spoke to them in the Hebrew language, they kept all the more silent (bold emphasis mine).

Acts 22:2

Even the risen Christ spoke to Paul on his way to Damascus in the Hebrew language!

And when we all had fallen to the ground, I heard a voice speaking to me and saying in the Hebrew language, ‘Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads’ (bold emphasis mine).

Acts 26:14

Two Other Important Collective Events

These are recorded in the biblical account by the Gospel writer and historian Luke, which clearly shows the extent of the use of the Hebrew language during the first century:

A. The Holy Day of Pentecost in Jerusalem

This particular Day of Pentecost in Jerusalem was extensively described by the historian Luke. Surprisingly, while Peter and his fellow apostles spoke in the Galilean Hebrew/Aramaic tongue (Acts 2:7), much more than a dozen nations or language groups (Acts 2:8-11) commented that they “heard them speak in the language in which they were born” (Acts 2:8).

But the bigger questions are:

  1. Why would all these peoples from such varied language and nations even go to Jerusalem if they were not familiar with the common Hebrew and Aramaic languages of Jerusalem?
  2. How would they know the exact Festival dates if they did not understand the Hebrew language when reading the Hebrew Scriptures in their own respective cities?
  3. The fact that they did not even need any interpreter shows that they were familiar then with the common language in Jerusalem (AENT, page 724, fifth paragraph).

B. The Concluding Statement at the Jerusalem Conference

For Moses has had throughout many generations those who preach him in every city, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath (emphases mine).

Acts 15:21

NOTE: Obviously, the conference in Jerusalem was done in their Hebrew language. The writings of “Moses” referred to here was obviously the Hebrew Scriptures. The phrase “every city” refers to those located in all the Gentile nations where Jews have settled in (with proselytes among them) as mentioned in Acts 2:8-11. These were long-time Sabbath-keepers and were familiar with the Festival dates, enabling them to be at Jerusalem at the designated times.

The General Attitude of the Jews Toward the Greek Language

Some might contend that the writings of Moses referred to here was the Septuagint (Greek version). Copied below are the negative attitudes and comments on Greek among the Jews and Josephus.

Attitude Towards the Septuagint

Prof. Neubauer says, “we may boldly state that this Greek translation of the Bible [Septuagint] was unknown in Israel except to men in the schools … It is said in the Talmud that when the Greek translation of the Seventy appeared, there came darkness upon the earth, and that the day was as unfortunate for Israel, as that on which the golden calf was made” (pg. 67).

The fact that the Jews at Jerusalem who spoke Greek are called HELLENISTS, that is GRECIAN, in Acts vi. 1, and ix. 29, shows that their Greek speech made them a peculiar class quite distinct from the rest of the people (Norton, page 13) [emphases mine].

AENT, pages 724-725

Josephus’ Comment Concerning the Greek Language

The testimony of Jewish priest-historian Flavius Josephus [Hebrew name: Yosef ben Matityahu (A.D. 37-100)] reflects the common attitude of the Jews toward the Greeks.

I have also taken a great deal of pains to obtain the learning of the Greeks, and understand the elements of the Greek language … [yet] I cannot pronounce Greek with sufficient exactness; for our nation does NOT encourage those that learn the languages of many nations … because they [the Jews] look upon this sort of accomplishment as common [very lowly] … But they give him the testimony of being a wise man who is fully acquainted with our [Jewish] laws … [in contrast] as there have been many who have done their endeavors with great patience to obtain this [Greek] learning, there have yet hardly been so many as two or three that have succeeded therein, who were immediately well rewarded for their pains (emphases mine).

Antiquities of the Jews XX, XI

Summary

  1. Evidence points to ancient Hebrew as the original language in Eden.
  2. Shem’s family were not part of the rebellious building project at Babel.
  3. Thus, the Semitic sister languages were not part of the corrupted languages.
  4. Abraham’s bloodline (and language) is carried down to the life of the Messiah.
  5. Even after 400 years, the Egyptian language has not taken root in the Israelite nation.
  6. The Neo-Assyrians were found to be familiar with the Hebrew and Aramaic languages.
  7. The Babylonians were likewise familiar with the Hebrew and Aramaic languages.
  8. For 250 years, the Seleucid (Greek) Empire and language were rejected by the Jews.
  9. The influential Roman language (Latin) was not absorbed by the Jewish nation at all.
  10. Hebrew and Aramaic were extensively understood in the known world at that time.
  11. Greek was much disdained by Flavius Josephus and by most of the Hebrew people.
  12. While Paul was on his way to Damascus, even the risen Christ spoke to him in Hebrew.

Conclusion

Among the faithful Hebrews, history shows that they have always resisted any change in their religion, language, or culture — preferring to die in persecution or battle than to adopt a foreign one. Therefore, they have NEVER adopted Greek as one of their languages. Hebrew and Aramaic continued to be their traditional language at the time of Christ and the original apostles during the New Testament period, as confirmed by truly informed and unbiased historians. This honest statement of facts is obviously contrary to the false but popular claims that Greek was the “lingua franca” in the surrounding regions including Israel in the first century. Watch out for upcoming articles which will shed more light on this controversial topic.

7 Solid Reasons Why Romans Was NOT Written in A.D. 56-58

When was Paul’s epistle to the Romans really written?

You’ll be SHOCKED to discover how unsubstantiated claims glaringly fail to fit the biblical and historical evidence based on solid source documents.

Now, why should the ACCURACY of time-sensitive evidence based on biblical and historical facts be considered important in this case?

  1. If at all possible, we don’t tolerate blatant lies to proliferate.
  2. False assumptions and poor scholarship need correction.
  3. Unless corrected, dates in Romans look illogical and absurd.
  4. Leaving assumptions as is makes God’s Word unreliable.
  5. We want to demonstrate the total inerrancy of God’s Word.
  6. Getting the facts straight strengthens our faith in God’s promises.
  7. We are held responsible for “growing in grace and knowledge…

Therefore, here’s a second hard look at the facts most Bible students and scholars may have overlooked. Many of them have simply assumed a lot of things all these past decades. It’s time we review these common, popular beliefs and assumptions and validate them with the facts!

Commonly Accepted Assumptions

The NIV Study Bible, in its Introduction to the Book of Romans states:

The book was probably written in the early spring of A.D. 57. [emphasis, mine]

The International Bible Commentary, edited by F.F. Bruce, in its Introduction to Romans written by Leslie C. Allen, states:

It was probably during the winter of A.D. 56-7 that the apostle Paul in a house in Corinth wrote the letter to the Romans. His third missionary journey was drawing to a close… [emphases, mine]

The Annotated Study Bible (KJV) says:

The Epistle of Romans was written between A.D. 56 and 58 from Corinth during Paul’s third missionary journey. [emphases, mine]

In their introductions to the Book of Romans, these other Bibles state:

The MacArthur Study Bible:

Most likely A.D. 56… [emphasis, mine]

The Life Application Bible:

DATE WRITTEN: About A.D. 57 from Corinth…

The Ryrie Study Bible categorically dates the letter as 58 (A.D.).

You would notice that some Bible Scholars sadly often seem to copy [slightly] from each other’s opinions. Or they might have a common source of information which has not been verified.

But what is the TRUTH based on real evidence, logic, and independent research?

First of all, some Bible scholars believe that the Letter to the Romans was probably the very first Epistle Paul wrote at the latter part of the fifth decade in the first century (or almost 30 years since the resurrection of Christ?!) and that all the other epistles were written even much later?

How accurate are those beliefs? Please read on with an open mind to find out.

The Most Basic and Primary Consideration

Logically and obviously, Paul’s letter to the Romans should have been written and should have been read in Rome when all the people he was greeting (as listed in Romans chapter 16) were still residing in Rome; such as Priscilla and Aquila; of which this couple’s house was, in fact, their meeting place (Romans 16:5).

Secondly, the date of Paul’s letter should FIT within the established biblical and historical records and evidence; such as the following:

1. The Biblical and Historical Account of Luke

The careful Gospel Writer and Historian Luke records that during the reign of Emperor Claudius, there were two significant events affecting the Jews in the Roman Empire. These were:

  1. There was a severe famine in the entire Roman world then (Acts 11:28)
  2. Emperor Claudius ordered Jews to leave Rome in Italy (Acts 18:2).

(NOTE: These two events reckoned in tandem with each other help produce the precise year for Paul’s letter to the Romans to have been written, as we shall see later. Please read on.)

2. The Reign of Emperor Claudius (A.D. 41-54)

History records that Emperor Claudius was assassinated on the 13th of October AD 54. Therefore, Emperor Claudius could not have made any more decrees past the date of his assassination; which shows that Paul could not have written his Epistle in A.D. 57; which was too late.

3. The Expulsion of the Jews From Rome (A.D. 49)

As a result of Emperor Claudius’ order; Aquila and Priscilla, being both Jews soon left Italy, and thus they met the Apostle Paul in Corinth (Acts 18:1-2). Since the Church in Rome used to meet in their house; Paul’s letter to the Romans (if indeed written in 57 A.D.), would then be useless and irrelevant because this couple left Rome many years earlier (Romans 16:5).

4. Paul’s Meeting With Aquila and Priscilla

The meeting of Paul with Aquila and Priscilla in Corinth can happen ONLY on Paul’s Second Missionary Journey of which Bible scholars commonly date as 49 to 52 A.D. This stated date is very far from the alleged 57 A.D.!

(NOTE: Paul’s First Missionary Journey dated 46 to 48 A.D. is out of the question because Paul did not even reach Corinth in that particular journey. Likewise, Paul’s Third Missionary Journey is also out of the question because he did not pass by Ephesus then; the city where Aquila and Priscilla disembarked and took up residence therein (Acts 18:18-19).

(ADDED NOTE: Like in the mal-practice of Paleontology concerning the pre-assumed age of a certain rock strata; wherein the age of a certain creature is simply based on that strata; likewise, sadly some Bible scholars try to determine in advance the year for Paul’s letter (in this case, to the Romans), then try to fit that assumed year with the particular missionary journey (in this case, the third); even if the details do not fit the said description based on the Book of Acts.)

5. The Presence of Proconsul Gallio in Achaia

The tenure of Proconsul Gallio in Achaia (just across the isthmus from Corinth) is dated AD 51-52. NOTE: While Paul was in Corinth, there was a Jewish uproar against Paul, wherein Sosthenes became an innocent victim of beatings (Acts 18:12-17). This violent incident led Paul to decide to leave Corinth shortly after that incident, as described earlier (Acts 18:18).

Since Paul together with Aquila and Priscilla were in the city of Corinth while Proconsul Gallio was assigned in Achaia; wherein Gallio intervened in the riot against Paul; and since Gallio’s tenure was only until 52 A.D.; the commonly accepted year of 57 A.D. for the writing of Romans is just too far from the true reality when compared with recorded historical evidence.

6. The Nature of Paul’s Second Missionary Journey

The nature of Paul’s Second Missionary journey was when for the very first time, Paul reached the city of Corinth; which was dated by biblical historians to have occurred about A.D. 49 to 52. It was during this journey when Priscilla and Aquila joined Paul in leaving the city of Corinth. This trip going back to Syria was the first time Paul passed by Ephesus; where and when Priscilla and Aquila also disembarked (Acts 18:18-19). Sometime after leaving Ephesus, Paul sailed straight on to the port of Caesarea (Acts 18:22).

7. Great Famine During the Reign of Claudius

Another biblical prophetic event confirmed in the pages of history is the great famine during the reign of Emperor Claudius, which was predicted by Agabus as recorded in Acts 11:27-28.

The fourth century historian, [Paulus] Orosius mentioned this famine in Syria which occurred in 46 to 47 A.D. King Alfred of England translated Orosius’ work during the Middle Ages in a work called, “The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle” where quoting in part, it says: “A.D. 46, in this year, Claudius, the second Roman Emperor to invade Britain… This took place in the fourth year of his rule. In this same year, a great famine in Syria took place which Luke mentions in his book, the Acts of the Apostles…” [emphasis mine]

Roman historian Suetonius also mentions this famine in “Life of Claudius,” chapter 18, where he says, “There was a scarcity of food, which was the result of bad harvests that occurred during a span of several years.” [emphasis mine]

Roman historian, Tacitus also mentions the famine in his “Annals,” in chapter 11:4.

Jewish Priest-historian, Josephus, wrote in “Antiquities” chapter 1.3 to 2.5 about this famine during the time of Claudius Caesar. Josephus wrote that: “around this time, live queen Helena of Adiabene, along with her son Izates; who both began to follow the Jewish way, turning away from their past lifestyle… Her arrival was of great help to the masses in Jerusalem, for there was a famine in the land that overtook them, and many people died of starvation.

Because of their great wealth and influence, both queen Helena and her son Izates imported large quantities of grain from Alexandria plus dried figs from Cyprus to help stave off hunger. As a result, both the queen and her son were held in high esteem by the people of Jerusalem.

Likewise, the apostle Paul undertook a personal campaign to help the poor brethren in Jerusalem (Romans 15:25-26; 1 Corinthians 16:1-4). Paul even further wrote two whole chapters to the Corinthians encouraging them in the attitude of giving (2 Corinthians 8-9).

Additional Comments About Paul and the Romans

Neither Peter nor Paul previously went to Rome to evangelize. But we need to remember that the Jews, centuries earlier were already scattered throughout the known world and strictly kept their faith.

Therefore, on the Day of Pentecost, among the thousands who gathered in Jerusalem at that time, there were Jewish believers and proselytes coming also from Rome (Acts 2:10).

While Paul had always fondly expressed his desire to visit Rome (Acts 19:21b; Romans 1:11,13,15; 15:23-28), he continually failed; until he was sent there by the Roman government for trial because he “appealed to Caesar” (Acts 25:12).

NOTE: If Paul had never been to Rome, how did he know who were the members in that congregation? The solid answer to that question is that in addition to Aquila and Priscilla, a certain man from the Roman congregation named Tertius, left Rome much earlier and also went to Corinth. It was Tertius who claimed to have written (at least) that part of the letter for Paul (Romans 16:22).

Phoebe, from nearby Cenchrea, who seemed to have some familiarity with Rome in the past, and with perhaps some unfinished business to do, likely volunteered to carry Paul’s letter from Corinth to Rome (Romans 16:1-2).

Paul’s Arrest and Imprisonment

In connection with Paul’s arrest in Jerusalem, he was brought to Caesarea because of the plot against his life (Acts 23:12-35). But because Felix and Festus wanted to please the Jews, they left Paul in confinement there for two years (Acts 24:27; 25:9a). Finally, King Agrippa heard his case; but since Paul appealed to Caesar, he had to be brought to Rome (Acts 25:10-12; 26:32). Of course, after two years under house arrest in Rome (Acts 28:30); history shows that he was eventually beheaded under the order of Roman Emperor Nero (Fox’s Book of Martyrs, page 4).

Upon knowing his fatal sentence, Paul wrote his farewell to Timothy (2 Timothy 4:6-8).

Please note that after the death of Emperor Claudius, his immediate successor was Emperor Nero, a known Christian-hater, who blamed Christians for the fire he caused in Rome; and was also responsible for the deaths of both apostles Peter and Paul in Rome.

Status of the Church in Rome After Paul’s Letter

With Aquila and Priscilla and all Jews gone from Rome; with their home no longer available for meetings; plus, under the cruel rule of Emperor Nero who hated Christians; the Roman congregation was obviously disbanded. Most likely those who remained held on to Paul’s letter, and possibly even made more copies for themselves. Thus, Paul’s letter could not have been written in A.D. 57.

Summary of Facts and Conclusion

Paul’s Letter to the Romans was written and eventually received and read to them while all the members listed in Romans 16:3-15 were still meeting in the house of Aquila and Priscilla.

The date of the Jewish Expulsion from Rome is known to be A.D. 49; which can be reconciled with Gallio’s term in Achaia which cannot exceed A.D. 52, due to Gallio’s serious illness.

The great famine affecting Jerusalem was the result of several years of failed harvests which First Century historians dated as [starting] A.D. 46-47. Being a great famine, the effects lasted.

Taking all these historical facts into consideration, we can more accurately say that Paul’s Letter to the Romans was most likely written about A.D. 50. (This is very much earlier than what most scholars alleged to be A.D. 57.) This stated year can be further confirmed by the following facts:

This framework fits well before Roman Emperor Claudius was assassinated in A.D.54.

This also fits well with the framework of Paul’s Second Missionary Journey dated A.D. 49-52. By A.D. 50, Paul would have arrived in Corinth and had written his Epistle; and sent it to Rome through Phoebe. Emperor Claudius just previously issued the decree for the Expulsion of Jews when Paul’s letter arrived in Rome. This led Aquila and Priscilla to leave Rome. Thus, by about A.D. 51, this Jewish couple reached Corinth and met Paul. Sometime thereafter, the riot against Paul occurred wherein Proconsul Gallio intervened. Shortly after this violence, Paul, with Aquila and Priscilla left Corinth. This Jewish couple dropped off at Ephesus and began to reside there. After some time in Ephesus, Paul proceeded to Caesarea, thus completing this Second Missionary Journey by A.D. 52.

Thus, Paul’s letter to the Romans is better reckoned to be A.D. 50.

7 Shocking Reasons Why the Traditional Jesus Is NOT the Biblical Messiah

So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the WHOLE world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
~Revelation 12:9 (NKJV and all throughout)

To what extent has this infallible Scripture been fulfilled in our day — concerning the identity of the true Messiah?

Surprisingly, most people today have been deceived into believing in a counterfeit, fake Messiah called Jesus!

Read on to find out exactly how, and why.

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Has the Bible Been Tampered to Support a Certain Doctrine?

Unknown to most Christians today, there are important verses in the Bible that have been secretly tampered with — a fact that has been kept hidden from mass media publications and from public exposure for hundreds of years — until now…

Most Christians are expectedly too trusting in believing every word they read in the Bible (and rightly so). Thus, they are completely unaware about certain secret manipulations or tampering of some Bible verses done hundreds of years ago, to support a doctrinal belief which otherwise absolutely has no other biblical support.

But since the prophet Daniel predicted that knowledge shall increase in these end times, these long-hidden secret manipulations are now being finally revealed and exposed publicly! (Daniel 12:4).

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Science Proves When Each 19-Year Time Cycle Really Begins

WHEN do we accurately start the 19-Year Time Cycle count?

The answer to this question is crucial and very important. WHY?

There’s a truism that if our starting entry is in error, all that follows is already affected by that original error. For instance, turning into a wrong road or adding a series of numbers.

Most corporate churches of God and other groups follow the modern Hebrew Calendar (a.k.a. The Calculated Rabbinical Calendar) to determine when to observe God’s Holy Days. But did you know that the present Hebrew Calendar is ignorant as to WHEN and WHERE to accurately and authoritatively anchor the START of each 19-Year Time Cycle in relation to earth’s position with the sun and moon in their respective orbits?

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The Shocking Corruptions in the Present Hebrew Calendar

Part 4 of 4 in the Calendar Series

It has been said that anything God (YHWH) has given has been somehow corrupted or polluted by man. Try to think of any exception to this observation or statement, if any?

Sadly, even God’s Sacred Calendar is NO exception. After reading Part 3 of this Calendar Series, we now focus on HOW this otherwise inspired, God-given calendar — trusted by God’s chosen people, churches of God, and other groups — has not been spared from massive corruptions. How, and why? Please read on to the end of this article.

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Disturbing Problems of the Modern Hebrew Calendar

Part 3 of 4 in the Calendar Series

After reading the first two articles in this calendar series, many may come to the conclusion that only the present Hebrew Calendar is reliable and perfect. They suppose that it was derived from God (YHWH) at creation and that the Jews were faithful custodians of the calendar. Because of these two assumptions, most churches today, among other groups, have simply adopted it “as is” without any questions.

But are these simple assumptions really true? Has the present Hebrew Calendar been spared from being tampered with through all the centuries past? It’s time we honestly examined biblical facts plus the record of history concerning the present Hebrew Calendar.

But before we begin, please consider this important fact. Since Satan is the greatest DECEIVER of all mankind, do you think he wasn’t wise and crafty enough to have spared such calendar from his clever corruptions and manipulations? How do we know? And how can we really prove it? Please read on to the end of this article series.

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Why All the Confusion in This World’s Various Calendars?

Part 2 of 4 in the Calendar Series

Unknown to most people in this world, there are about 82 other calendars that have been used through the centuries, with most of them still being used even to this very day!

Last week, I wrote an article titled, The Surprising Origins of our Modern Calendar. While the Roman Calendar is presently the most popular, we need to be aware that there are several dozen other calendars that the peoples in various ages of this world have used, and may still be using today. Of course, some were more recently invented than others.

Why?

But the most important question is: Why this great proliferation and confusion of various calendars in this one single world of ours? Surprisingly, do you suspect the cause is similar to the great proliferation of various religions in this world today! Therefore, could all these have some common denominator among them? Please read on to find out.

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Roman calendar

The Surprising Origins of Our Modern Calendar

Part 1 of 4 in the Calendar Series

As we come to the end of this Roman calendar year and face the beginning of a new year, it’s good to take a brief but serious look into this modern calendar system that we have so faithfully followed and highly regarded.

Unknown to most, our calendar had a very crude, unreliable, and a pagan-influenced beginning. Since it has gone through a number of transformations by certain authorities in the past, could it be similarly (and badly) affected in the future?

A Glaring Anomaly

Let us first look at a very obviously disturbing fact, but simply ignored by almost all today. Did you know that the months September, October, November, and December were originally — based on their Latin names — the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth months of the year respectively? Did you also know that there were only 10 calendar months in the Roman year to begin with?

By adding January and February much later in its history, it became 12 months. But alas, the four earlier-stated months suddenly became the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth months — contradicting their original ordinal place names in the Roman calendar! In other words, for centuries, they have been moved two months away from their original places! But did anyone, or any authority, even care to correct it to this day? Surprisingly, this world has remained blind to this fact!

Questions That Need Answers

How did that ever happen? How did the Romans reckon or account for those originally missing months? What are the possible implications of those changes? Were there other changes? And what were the main reasons for those massive changes? If the authorities then orchestrated those monumental changes and the masses remained blinded, would some authority in the future also initiate changes and the whole world will simply agree and say nothing to correct it? What does Bible prophecy predict on this subject? Please read on to the end.

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Would Jesus Celebrate Christmas?

Would Jesus Endorse the Celebration of Christmas?

If Jesus were here on earth today, would He endorse or celebrate Christmas?

After all, it’s supposed to commemorate His birthday, right?

As the Son of God, it would be the grandest affair imaginable.

Would He take a leading role in planning, coordinating, and executing His own grandiose and elaborate Christmas party?

Will He use His full powers and influence to create a majestic and matchless worldwide celebration?

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