Author: Edmond Macaraeg Page 1 of 5

25 Irrefutable Reasons Why the New Testament Was NOT Originally Written in Greek

This is a very shocking article that goes contrary to what is commonly taught and popularly believed in this modern Christian world.

But before making a prematurely negative judgment, please lay aside first any bias and prejudice, and open-mindedly examine the FACTS that will be presented here in a logical and objective manner — backed-up by overwhelming solid evidence, both external and internal.

In this regard, let us wisely and patiently apply the advice of King Solomon when he said:

He who answers a matter before he hears it, it is folly and shame to him.
~Proverbs 18:13

Not only that, but most may have already been influenced — sadly and unwittingly — by the strong effect of the statement: “A lie repeated often enough is eventually believed as true.” Whether factual or not, this quote is commonly attributed to Adolf Hitler’s propagandist, Joseph Goebbels.

NOTE: Unless you have already read it, please READ FIRST the fully documented article on this website as a suggested primer:The Amazing Hebrew Language History Since Eden.” This will give you a solid understanding of the God-inspired history of the Semitic languages.

Here now are the 25 Solid Facts Proving that Greek Cannot Be the Original New Testament Language:

1. God’s Nature and Character Is Consistent

God talked to Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden in what later became known as the Hebrew language. God used this language to speak to all the Israelites at Mt. Sinai. It’s the language in which the Ten Commandments were written by God’s own finger. It’s also the language He used to speak to all the patriarchs and prophets. He even had the Old Testament written primarily in this language. Is it now logical to believe that God (for no apparent reason) suddenly changed His mind (Malachi 3:6) and surprisingly began to use Greek — a completely foreign language — to write the New Testament? Such absurd thinking presents lots of problematic difficulties.

2. Josephus Disdained the Greek Language

Josephus [Hebrew name: Yosef ben Matityahu (A.D. 37-100)], the first-century Jewish priest-historian, reflects the common negative attitude of the Jews toward the Greeks when he said:

I have also taken a great deal of pains to obtain the learning of the Greeks, and understand the elements of the Greek language … [yet] I cannot pronounce Greek with sufficient exactness; for our nation does NOT encourage those that learn the languages of many nations … because they [the Jews] look upon this sort of accomplishment as common [very lowly] … But they give him the testimony of being a wise man who is fully acquainted with our [Jewish] laws … [in contrast] as there have been many who have done their endeavors with great patience to obtain this [Greek] learning, there have yet hardly been so many as two or three that have succeeded therein, who were immediately well rewarded for their pains (emphases mine).

~Antiquities of the Jews, XX, XI

3. Jews Had an Aversion Toward the Greeks

The great Jewish aversion toward the Greeks (especially on religious matters) is reflected and recorded by the gospel writer and historian Luke in that violent incident where an angry Jewish mob developed upon the false report that Paul brought Greeks with him in his temple worship during his last visit to Jerusalem (Acts 21:27-29). This led to Paul’s arrest and imprisonment.

4. Hebrew-Aramaic Was Actually the Common Language in First-Century Judea

All honest historians agree that Christ and his disciples commonly spoke in Aramaic [a sister dialect to Hebrew], which was also the common language in all Judea and surrounding regions in the first century. Sadly, popular Christian teaching deceitfully wants us to believe that Greek was their common language, which is also the false reason given to support the erroneous belief that Greek was the original language of the New Testament.

5. Aramaic Was Christ’s Native Language

Two relatively recent movies — in consultation with noted top historians to precisely re-create the original scenario in Jerusalem at the time of Christ on earth — used Aramaic in their movie dialogue. The two stated Christian films were “The Passion of the Christ” and “Risen.”

6. Hebrew-Aramaic Was Also the Native Language of All Christ’s Disciples

All of Christ’s disciples were Hebrews who also spoke Aramaic. Their primary audience were also Hebrews who also spoke Aramaic. And we’ve already seen that the native language of Yahshua (Jesus) was Aramaic. It is absolutely illogical and unreasonable for them to suddenly write to their fellow Hebrew audience in a foreign hated language (Greek)! It’s like a true-blooded American writing to a large American audience using the Russian language!

7. Christ’s Disciples Were Not Knowledgeable in Greek

Let us remember that even the top four most-often named disciples [Peter, Andrew, James, and John] were plain fishermen and were derisively derided by the Sanhedrin as “uneducated and untrained men” (Acts 4:13). HOW then can such ignorant men write in Greek? Impossible!

8. There Is No Evidence That the Disciples Ever Studied Greek

There is absolutely no record or evidence that the disciples (even after Christ’s resurrection) ever ventured to find a school or a tutor to study Greek. If ever they did study first, HOW could they fulfill Christ’s commission to go and preach? And since both the Jewish and Roman persecutions came early, they obviously would have already been dead before they were able to learn Greek.

9. The “Oracles” (or Words) of God Were Committed to the Jews

The apostle Paul says that “the oracles [words, NIV] of God were committed to the JEWS” — NOT to the Latin-speaking Romans, and also NOT to the Greeks (Romans 3:1,2). Sadly, this biblical fact is hidden or ignored by some historians and theologians in an effort to rewrite history. This false but popular claim that Greek was the original language of the New Testament is already clearly debunked by this one verse alone! Remember, God has absolute power to cause His words to be fulfilled to the letter!

10. The Apostles Wrote Early Due to the Impending Persecutions

Logically piecing all the facts together (and contrary to common teachings), it is believed that before leaving Jerusalem to fulfill Christ’s commission for them to go find the “lost sheep of the House of Israel” (and never to return due to their martyrdom in far-off lands), the apostles and disciples wrote first. This was done shortly after receiving the mighty power of God’s Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost [and while the facts were still fresh in their minds] and before the Roman persecutions began. Those apostles (like Matthew and John) and disciples (like Mark and Luke) who were gifted in writing and familiar with all the events surrounding Christ’s life wrote their accounts (now called “gospels”). The later letters of John, James, Jude, and Peter came shortly thereafter. Paul’s epistles were last. All these accounts and letters were written in their native Hebrew-Aramaic language while they were still residing in Jerusalem. After all those writings were done, God inspired such original autographs to be duplicated in multiple copies by many of the existing Hebrew Scribes (and priests) in Jerusalem who eventually became zealous converts by then (Acts 6:7; 12:24).

11. The Apostles Then Went to Seek the “Lost Sheep Of Israel”

Unknown to, or simply ignored by most historians and theologians, those faithful apostles followed Christ’s instructions to them to the letter. In obedience to Christ’s command, they left Jerusalem and went to find the “lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matthew 10:5,6; 15:24). These “lost sheep of the house of Israel” also spoke and understood Hebrew and Aramaic. It was to them [the scattered sheep outside of the Judean fold] (John 10:16) that the Gospel message and apostolic letters were primarily addressed to first, because being very far from Judea, they needed these comforting messages more. Many centuries later, those original writings (apostolic autographs) were copied and translated into Greek, Latin, and many other languages.

[NOTE: Appendix 1 explains more details to an added Commission to the apostles. Appendix 2 details the extent of knowledge about the Gospel message then.]

Leadership at the Early Jerusalem Congregation

Except for Peter and John [among the original twelve who stayed behind to head the Jerusalem congregation], assisted by James [Christ’s half-brother, though not among the twelve, but was considered a pillar in the faith] (Galatians 1:18,19; 2:9), the rest of the apostles eventually went to seek the “lost sheep of the house of Israel.” While most of the Jerusalem members began to scatter soon after the stoning of Stephen, the apostles still stayed behind (Acts 8:1). Why?

Two Important Reasons Why They Still Stayed

From Luke’s account, we can figure out that the apostles waited until after the Jerusalem Conference to be able to help decide on the very important doctrinal issues presented then. Plus, more importantly, to also finish their apostolic writings and duplications thereof (Acts 15:2b).

More details on the very big topic of “Where Did the Twelve Apostles Go?” is detailed in the article written by Dr. Herman L. Hoeh.

[NOTE: Appendix 3 details the Territorial Preaching Boundaries of the original apostles.]

12. The Romans Failed to Destroy Those Hebrew-Aramaic Writings

The Romans actually did a double major campaign to destroy all Hebrew writings. After the massive destruction of Jerusalem and the temple in A.D. 70, the first massive attempt to destroy all Hebrew writings was precipitated by the violent Bar Kokhba Revolt (A.D. 132-135). After the bloody suppression of that revolt, in his anger, Roman Emperor Hadrian proclaimed the rooting out of Jewish nationalism in Judea, which he saw as the cause of the repeated rebellions. He then prohibited Torah law, the Hebrew calendar, executed Judaic scholars, and the sacred scrolls of Judaism were ceremonially burned. In an attempt to erase any memory of the name Israel, and in utter contempt, he erased and replaced the name Israel off the map withSyria Palaestina (from the original word “Philistine,” the traditional long-standing chief enemy of the Israelites).

The second attempt was undertaken during the reign of Emperor Diocletian who ruled from A.D. 284-305. This was called the Diocletanic Persecution (303–11), described as the empire’s last, largest, and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity.

But as a wise advanced planner, God is always ahead of man’s evil plans. For example, when Herod planned to kill all the male children in an effort to eliminate the Christ-child, Joseph was instructed earlier to bring his family to Egypt and stayed there until Herod was dead.

God’s four-fold advanced steps concerning the preservation of the Apostolic Writings were:

  1. The original apostles wrote their writings before the Roman persecutions began.
  2. Many copies of these were made and brought to regions beyond the Roman Empire.
  3. These “lost sheep of the house of Israel” preserved those Hebrew-Aramaic writings.
  4. Those writings stayed there until there was a change in the climate of persecutions.

These developments explain why the apostolic writings in the Hebrew-Aramaic language escaped even the double massive Roman Campaigns to destroy them. Of course, these scattered Israelite tribes were already in long possession of what is called the Old Testament Scriptures, being read by them every Sabbath (Acts 15:21). And as God’s miraculous back-up plan, most of these Old Testament Scriptures were providentially hidden in earthen jars at the Qumran caves near the shores of the Dead Sea, better known as the Dead Sea Scrolls. Indeed, God is never late in doing what needs to be done, and He is never outwitted by man’s evil plans (Psalms 2:1-5).

13. The Roman Empire’s Split Protected the Aramaic Writings

This major division of the Roman Empire happened during the reign of Constantine the Great. Because the eventual focus shifted on the rivalry between the Western Latin and the Eastern Greek factions of the empire, the Hebrew-Aramaic writings of the apostles were left undisturbed.

Some notable changes during Emperor Constantine’s reign were:

  1. Persecution of Christians eventually stopped when he adopted Pseudo Christianity.
  2. Pseudo Christianity was made the official state religion of the Roman Empire.
  3. Pseudo Christianity started to split into the Western and Eastern factions when Constantine divided Rome into the Western and Eastern Empires starting in A.D. 330.

According to biblical scholar Henry H. Halley, this great division was finally cemented by A.D. 395 when Rome officially adopted the Latin language for the Western Empire versus Constantinople (named after Constantine instead of its old name Byzantium) when it also adopted Greek as the official language for the Eastern empire (“Church History,” Halley’s Bible Handbook, H.H. Halley, Zondervan, p. 795).

This (about 1,600 years) old political and religious divide exists until today between the Roman Catholic Church of the West, and the Greek Orthodox Church of the East. This rivalry actually focuses more highly on the language competition between Latin versus Greek!

NOTE: This great competition to become the first and more dominant between the Western Latin Church and the Eastern Greek Church explains why the Latin Vulgate was the first to be printed by Johannes Gutenberg in the early 1500s, compared to the still conflicting Greek manuscripts which appeared very much later, but surprisingly still called after Latin names! (Source: Wikipedia: Movable Type)

14. Disturbing Conflicts Among Existing Greek Manuscripts

This is not to say that the Latin version has no problems. But when the Greek translated manuscripts eventually appeared, none of them agreed with each other! WHY?

First, very obviously, they were NOT translated from one original source document, but from various corrupted copies!

Secondly, all these Greek manuscripts had surprisingly Latin names! This fact alone clearly goes against what the apostle Paul stated as the strong marker for originality where he wrote that the “oracles [words] of God were committed to the Jews”—not to the Latin Romans nor even to the Greeks (Romans 3:1,2).

Thirdly, consider the places where these Greek manuscripts were found. They all had a long-standing history of Anti-Semitism (hatred against the Hebrew people). The following are the present popular versions called “Codex,” and named after the places where they were found:

We have one more version, which was the basis for the King James Bible version — the Textus Receptus (Received Text or Majority Text).

Wescott and Hort on the Textus Receptus

While most Christians became well-settled with the King James Version, the New Testament portion of which was translated from the Greek Textus Receptus, two noted theologians rocked this boat of stability when they pioneered a new study called Textual Criticism, which questioned all assumptions and ventured to revise even the Textus Receptus Greek translation!

These two controversial figures were Wescott and Hort, who in 1881 published their own New Testament in the Original Greek (coded: WH). In their work, these two scholars instead favored the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus manuscripts combined with Codex Bezae plus the Old Latin and the Old Syriac texts. But surprisingly and disturbingly, a newer version, the Nestle-Aland (coded: NU) contains 558 differences from the WH text! So, which version is now to be believed?

15. The Resulting Babel of Philosophies on Bible Translations

Today, we have a plethora of competing and somewhat disagreeing Bible translations. On this regard, it is important to know the reasons why such translations were made. For an exhaustive commentary on this Babel-like phenomenon, their background, and an evaluation of each translation, you may want to read the PDF version of a 281-page book, “Modern Bible Translations Unmasked.”

16. Anti-Semitism Clouded Bible Translation Accuracy

1. The Re-Arrangement of the Books in the New Testament

Most honest Bible scholars know this fact. And frankly, Anti-Semitism and Antinomianism are two of the hidden agenda why this rearrangement was made. Please note that after the Gospel accounts, the writings of the original apostles (who were actually called first) should follow the Book of Acts rather than being placed last. Paul’s letters should be placed last (1 Corinthians 15:8, 9). Did not the Bible say, “to the Jew first and then to the Greeks/Gentiles [or “Arameans” AENT, HRB]”? (Romans 1:16; 2:10). In effect, God also offered salvation to the Jews first, not to Gentiles [or Greeks] (John 4:19-22).

[NOTE: AENT = Aramaic English New Testament; HRB = Hebrew Roots Bible]

2. Ignoring the Original Language of the Gospel Accounts

Another sign of Anti-Semitism is ignoring, denying, and changing the original language of the Gospel accounts. Below is an authoritative testimony:

The material of our four Gospels is all Israeli and the language in which it was originally written is Aramaic, then the principal language of the land.

~Quoted from Our Translated Gospels, p. ix (1936) by Dr. Charles Cutler Torrey (one of the most capable Peshitta scholars), AENT, p.723

More details on New Testament Anti-Semitism, how it developed and who mainly caused it is described in greater detail in the Appendix section, page 915, of the AENT.

Since All the Greek Manuscripts Do Not Agree With One Another, What Then Was the Correct Original Manuscript Version?

17. There’s Proof that the Hebrew-Aramaic Language Was the Original

The Khabouris Codex is the oldest Peshitta Aramaic text available. It is not a translation, but the language Christ spoke in His day [NOTE: Peshitta simply means common, plain, simple, or straightforward].

NOTE: When the Khabouris Codex was found, the news article “US Library Gets an Ancient Bible” appeared in the New York Times on March 26, 1955 reporting on the oldest known New Testament Bible written in “the language used by Christ.” The article says that it was taken to the White House where then-President Dwight Eisenhower viewed it, together with then-Secretary of State John Foster Dulles. It was escorted via police motorcade and armed guards, along with much pomp to the Library of Congress. This Codex was said to have been insured for “an hour and a half” in the amount of $1,500,000 US dollars. This copy stayed in the Library of Congress until 24 June 1986, when it was transferred to the Western Theological Seminary in Holland, Michigan, where it remains to this day.

Andrew Gabriel Roth, noted historian, scholar, and authority on Hebrew and Aramaic languages, stated in part in the Introduction to the Aramaic English New Testament (AENT):

It is common knowledge that Y’shua (Christ) and his original followers spoke Hebrew and Aramaic, but up until now the vast majority of Bible students have only had access to translations and versions of Greek texts.

NOTE: Andrew Gabriel Roth has access and studied the most ancient Aramaic text (in Hebrew letters) which were derived from the Khabouris Codex, one of 360 manuscripts that make up the Eastern Peshitta family. He said that the present Aramaic English translation of the volume is as literal as possible to the Aramaic and includes many footnotes that address significant differences between the earliest Aramaic and Greek versions. This Aramaic English New Testament is the most definitive English New Testament translation in nearly two thousand years.

Background Information on the Aramaic Text

Authenticity: The article from the New York Times, March 1955 issue says: “Scholars had examined the manuscript for the Library of Congress and pronounced it authentic.”

Age: The AENT website says “The Khabouris Manuscript is a copy of a Second Century New Testament, which was written in approximately 165 AD (internally documented as 100 years after the great persecution of the Christians by Nero, in 65 AD). Carbon dating has found this copy of the New Testament to be approximately 1,000 years old. Given its origins, this would make it a copy of the oldest known New Testament manuscript.”

Resources: 1) Unpublished writings of Abbott Gerrit Crawford, Ph.D., MSJ, Western-Rite Syrian Orthodox Church in America; 2) Fr. Michael Ryce, N.D., D.C.P.” Additional testimony is in http://hebrewnewtestament.com/khabouris.htm

Now, here is Irrefutable Internal Evidence on the Hebrew-Aramaic as the Original Language in the New Testament:

18. Names of Places in Israel Were in Hebrew-Aramaic

  • John 1:28 — Bethany (Beth-Anya or Bethabara). The word “Beth” is simply the Hebrew word for “house…” There are over 50 geographic places starting with “Beth” in Israel, which clearly shows that the language of the whole nation has always been Hebrew.
  • John 19:13 — Gabbatha [Griptha] (Hebrew and Aramaic for judgment seat or pavement)
  • John 19:17 — Golgotha [Gagultha] (Aramaic word for the place of the skull)
  • Acts 1:19 — Akel Dama (“Khagel-Dema” is the Aramaic word/phrase for “field of blood”)

19. Historical Events Were in the Hebrew-Aramaic Language

  • John 19:20 — Sign on the stake was written in Hebrew, Greek, Latin)
  • John 20:16 — Mary Magdalene exclaimed: “Rabboni” (Aramaic for Great Teacher)
  • Acts 21:40 — Paul spoke in Hebrew to the accusing Jerusalem crowd
  • Acts 22:2 — Crowd became very quiet when Paul began to speak in Hebrew

20. Internal Evidence of Aramaic Names, Phrases, and Idioms

The following words and phrases simply do NOT occur in the Greek language at all, and thus needed to be explained using another language by the use of parenthesis to be understood:

  • Abba [Aramaic for Father, Daddy] (Mark 14:36; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6)
  • Bar Yona [Bar-Jonah, Aramaic for the son of Jonah] (Matthew 16:17)
  • Benai Regesh [Boanerges, Aramaic for sons of thunder] (Mark 3:17)
  • Cephas [Aramaic “Keefas” meaning “stone” (John 1:42; 1 Corinthians 1:12; etc.)
  • Kurbuno [Corban, Aramaic meaning an offering for God] (Mark 7:11)
  • Momuno [mammon, Aramaic meaning riches] (Matthew 6:24)
  • Moran etha [Maranatha, Aramaic for our Lord comes soon] (1 Corinthians 16:22)
  • Nathan a el [Aramaic for God gave] (John 1:47)
  • Raca [Aramaic “reqa” meaning empty-headed, fool] (Matthew 5:22)
  • Tabitha [or Dorcas, Aramaic for gazelle] (Acts 9:36)
  • Talitha cumi [Aramaic for “Little girl, I say to you, arise”] (Mark 5:41)

21. Christ Spoke in Aramaic in His Last Moments of Agony

This final clincher PROOF was when Christ Himself was on the stake. Near His last moment of agony, Christ spoke in the Aramaic dialect of Hebrew when He said, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani” (Matthew 27:46; Mark 15:34).

NOTE: The original native speech of any man normally comes out at the moment of the most extreme crises — where all pretenses are cast aside. Here Christ clearly spoke in Aramaic!

22. The Voice From Heaven Still Spoke to Saul/Paul in Hebrew!

Many years later, when the still unconverted Saul/Paul was traveling with companions to Damascus to imprison believers there, at noonday, he was struck by a brilliant light which blinded him and threw him and his companions to the ground. And he heard a voice from heaven calling his name and which spoke to him with many instructions in the Hebrew language (Acts 26:14)!

23. Clues: The Rest of the New Testament Had Aramaic Originals

The writers of the New Covenant first made known the heavenly words to the Jews … in their native tongue, and afterward in the Greek language, but in doing so retained everywhere a flavor of Syriac [Aramaic].
~AENT, p. 725.

The “codeword” [password] of Paul is the AramaicMoran etho” [Maran atha], not only to authenticate his authorship amidst many spurious claims then, but also to demonstrate with sufficient proof that the speech of the first-century believers was then predominantly Aramaic (Prof. Neubuer, p. 54).
~AENT, p. 725.

Other Clues:

  • Use of “Abba” to the Gentile congregation in Rome (Romans 8:15)
  • Use of “Abba” to the Gentile congregation in Galatia (Galatians 4:6)
  • Use of “Maranatha” to the Gentile congregation in Corinth (1 Corinthians 16:22)
  • Mention of observing [kosher] “food or drink, festival, new moon, or Sabbath” among the Gentile congregation of Colossae is proof that these people were not only familiar with understanding the Hebrew Scriptures but were actually practicing these biblical [Hebrew] customs even during the “New Testament” period, and still being encouraged by Paul (Colossians 2:16).
  • Use of the equivalent of “Maranatha” (“even so, come Yahshua Yahweh [HRB]”) as previously addressed to the Seven Churches in Asia Minor (Revelation chapters 2 and 3; and in Revelation 22:20) is also proof that they understood Hebrew-Aramaic.
  • Likewise, as another proof, Luke clearly tells us that Moses [the Torah or the Hebrew Scriptures] was being read every Sabbath in all the synagogues in every city for a long time prior to, and even during the first century A.D. (Acts 15:21).

24. Mistranslated Accounts Based on the Greek text But Correct in the Aramaic Original

Camel Thru the Eye of a Needle?

The Aramaic word “Gamala” refers to a “heavy rope” rather than a “camel” which is both spelled: gimel-meem-lamed-alap. Greek scholars puzzled over this physical impossibility! The “heavy rope” lesson teaches the metaphorical need to “unravel” one’s fortune strand by strand first before one is able to enter God’s Kingdom (Matthew 24:19; Mark 10:25; Luke 18:25).

Did Simon the “Leper” Host a Party at His Home?

Matthew 26:6-7 talks about “Simon the Leper” hosting Christ together with many visitors for a meal at his home, where a woman also anoints Christ with a very expensive oil (perfume). This is an impossible scenario because even in Christ’s day, lepers are outcast from society (Leviticus 13:45-50). The simple solution to this puzzle is again a Greek misreading of the Aramaic word spelled: gimel-resh-beyt-aleph (GRBA). Since Hebrew and Aramaic have no vowels, it can be pronounced both as “gar-bah” which means “leper” or “gar-ah-bah” which means “jar-maker.” Obviously, this Simon was a successful “jar-maker” rather than an outcast “leper.”

25. There Are More Examples of Such Greek Textual Problems

The 424-page book, “Was the New Testament Really Written in Greek?” written by Raphael Lataster, compiles at least 152 specific discrepancies between the original Aramaic and the Greek text! You may access the website at http://www.aramaicpeshitta.com

There are also many other eminent Peshitta Aramaic scholars. Among some noted ones are Dr. George Lamsa, Dr. Rocco Errico, Dr. James Trimm, Glenn David Bauscher, Don Esposito, Andrew Gabriel Roth, Paul David Younan, Rob Vanhoff, plus many other unnamed ones.

Summary of the Evidence

Let us be reminded that:

  1. The original apostles took Christ’s instructions seriously, including going to the “lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matthew 10:6). Christ mentioned about having “other sheep” which were not of that [Judean] fold then but will listen to His voice (John 10:16). To them, the apostles brought Christ’s message in their own Hebrew-Aramaic language to their distant lands.
  2. ALL the New Testament writers were Hebrews by blood, language, and culture. They went to their fellow Hebrew-Aramaic speaking peoples. Luke was actually a Semitic Greek, who long adopted the Hebrew way of life, and was also deeply converted. Otherwise, God would not have used him in such very special and powerful roles. His life was always in association with the Hebrew apostles and has been a constant traveling companion of the apostles, especially Paul. Thus, all the New Testament writers wrote in Hebrew-Aramaic.
  3. The original New Testament recipients of the writings were Hebrew God-fearers even if they dwelt in various far-off nations of the known world then (Acts 2:5-11). Therefore, why would a Hebrew, writing to another Hebrew, write in a completely foreign language? Since such is definitely illogical, the writings were obviously in the Hebrew-Aramaic language.
  4. The original believers (God-fearers) from nations in the known world then often visited Jerusalem which means they were familiar with the Hebrew and Aramaic language in that city. One special incident recorded by the gospel writer-historian Luke was on the Day of Pentecost when there was much more than a dozen nations and language groups gathered in Jerusalem (Acts 2:5-11).
  5. The Epistles of Paul were also addressed and sent to be read to the original core of early believers who were of Hebrew background, and therefore he wrote to them in their native Hebrew-Aramaic language. Paul’s letters were centuries later translated into Greek for the later generations, and for the rest of the world.
  6. Internal evidence shows that the preponderance of original Aramaic names of persons, places, phrases, and idioms needed to be interpreted into the Greek language. This clearly shows that Greek was NOT the original language used then.
  7. Comparing the Aramaic text with the Greek translation, the Aramaic is more accurate. Example: “Camel Through the Eye of a Needle” and “Simon the Leper,” etc.

Conclusion

We have just conclusively shown through this long article and its various links that indeed, the original language used in the New Testament was Hebrew-Aramaic as evidenced by many historical documents, plus numerous pieces of internal biblical evidence.

Therefore, the popular belief commonly taught that Greek was the original language of the New Testament is shown to be completely WITHOUT any basis or evidence whatsoever!

Appendix 1

One Added Commission (Matthew 28:19,20)

Go and make disciples of all nations, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you [plus a promise…]

NOTE: The “making” and “teaching” of disciples in all nations, was obviously possible only thru their writings, as we see now. It was simply impossible for all of them then (with each facing impending martyrdom), to physically go into all nations on earth (when not even all nations were formed yet). The word “even” is added, and the word “age” is substituted by the translators.

COMMENT: The “formula” for baptizing in the name of the “trinity” is a spurious (fake) addition invented by the Roman Catholic Church and inserted only toward the end of the second century. For full documentation of this fact, citing more than 50 pieces of historical evidence, please read the article on this website: “Has the Bible Been Tampered to Support a Certain Doctrine?

Appendix 2

Christ’s Life, Death, and Resurrection Were Known in Judea

Concerning the Life, Death, and Resurrection of Christ, the people of Jerusalem and Judea were already familiar with those events. Concerning events surrounding Christ’s birth, it was “widely known abroad” (Luke 2:17 KJV). Also, the events surrounding His miraculous deeds, His crucifixion, death, and resurrection became the talk of the town in Jerusalem when they happened, even as commented upon by a relative/disciple of Christ, named Cleopas (Luke 24:14,18).

Detailed Focus on Those Significant Events

Consider these surprising facts: When Christ was born in the middle of the night, as commanded by the angels, the shepherds had to go virtually from door to door inquiring for a baby that was born in a manger? (Luke 2:12). And when He was resurrected, long-dead saints miraculously arrived at many homes in Jerusalem, causing great unbelievable wonder to find out the main cause of this unusual event in the whole city that day (Matthew 27:52,53)!

Likewise, the coming of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost caused “devout men from every nation under heaven” dwelling in Jerusalem that day to spread the news far and wide (“noised abroad”) about the day’s event (Acts 2:5,6 KJV).

Known Even to the Top Roman Authorities

Even at the highest level of the Roman government at that time, Paul mentioned that King Agrippa was an “expert in all customs and questions which have to do with the Jews” (Acts 26:3). Considering the efficient intelligence-gathering-arm of the Roman government, Paul further stated before King Agrippa saying, “I am convinced that none of these things escapes his [King Agrippa’s] attention, since this thing was not done in a corner” and that Paul is somehow convinced that the King believes the prophets (Acts 26:26,27).

Appendix 3

Where Did the Israelite Tribes Go?

The Clue Is Revealed in the Letters of Peter and James:

James addressed his general letter “to the twelve tribes scattered abroad” (James 1:1).

Peter’s apostolic letter reveals where the “lost tribes of Israel” were located:

“Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the pilgrims of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,”
~1 Peter 1:1

If you look at most Bible maps, these stated regions are in the northern part of what is known as Asia Minor; located at the southern shores of the Black Sea. That geographical area is now part of modern-day Turkey.

Peter also greeted the scattered Jews left (or those who preferred to remain) in Babylon who also spoke the Hebrew and Aramaic language (1 Peter 5:12-14).

But Paul Preached Only in Southern Galatia

NOTE: Please know that there are two “Galatia” mentioned: the northern and the southern. Paul preached in southern Galatia area only in the cities of Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe (Acts 14).

Paul’s three missionary journeys did not include those northern regions of Asia Minor. In fact, there was one attempt of Paul to visit Mysia [in the northern region], but the Holy Spirit prevented him (Acts 16:7,8). Why?

Administratively, God designated the original apostles to concentrate on the “lost sheep of the house of Israel” [located in the northern regions], while the apostle Paul’s focus was on the Gentile lands [located in the southern regions] (Galatians 2:8). In his letter to the Romans, Paul said he was careful not to work in Israelite territory (Romans 15:20).

NOTE: Peter’s letter included the descriptive word “pilgrims” which means those Israelite tribes were strangers in those lands where they settled in (as Abraham was also a stranger in the land of Canaan). Further, Peter also used the descriptive word “Dispersion” which means those Israelite tribes were those previously uprooted from their native land of Israel by the Neo-Assyrian conquest many centuries earlier (2 Kings 17:23b).

This phenomenon exactly fulfills the prophecy of Balaam where the tribes of Israel continued to remain as “strangers and pilgrims” in the lands where they went to occupy when he said:

From the rocky peaks I see them, from the heights I view them. I see a people who live apart and do not consider themselves one of the nations.
~Numbers 23:9, NIV

More details on this big topic are contained in the article: “Where Did the Twelve Apostles Go?” by Dr. Herman L. Hoeh.

The Amazing Hebrew Language History Since Eden

NOTICE: This article reveals intentionally hidden truths and challenges some prevalent but false and unfounded beliefs.

As Adam and Eve tried to hide from God [YHWH Elohim] after they sinned, most of humanity today also tries to hide their eyes from many of God’s truths.

Let us start with an important question: Is it possible to trace the language God used to communicate with our first parents and with the righteous men of old? What was that language used in the Old World that extended into Noah’s time?

While some may prematurely disdain or ignore this topic for fear of finding the truth that may directly contradict their prejudices, the more critical question is: How important are the Hebrew people and their language in God’s eyes?

Direct Answer From the Testimony of Scriptures

Did you know that at least four verses talk about God considering the Hebrew people and God’s Law as figuratively “the APPLE of His [God’s] eyes” (Deuteronomy 32:10b; Psalm 17:8; Proverbs 7:2; Zechariah 2:8)?

Yet, until today, some have a negative attitude toward the Hebrew people, their language, and especially God’s Laws! Woe be to anyone who displeases God by their negative attitude towards God’s loving concern for the “apple of His eyes.”

This early in our discussion, let us consider the irrevocable fact that God [Elohim] spoke in Hebrew to the Israelites at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 20:1), wrote the Ten Commandments in Hebrew with His own finger (Exodus 24:12; 31:18; 34:1; Deuteronomy 9:10), and caused the Holy Scriptures to be written in the Semitic languages of Hebrew and Aramaic. And there is more to this. Please read on.

Talking about the LANGUAGE of the Semitic (descendants of Shem) people, let us first establish some logic about the inherent general nature of language.

Logical and Basic Principles Concerning Language:

  1. It is God alone who gave the language to our first parents at Eden.
  2. Language is always handed down from parents to children as a cycle.
  3. People take pride in their language and always seek to preserve it.
  4. Language use does not suddenly change, even after conquest by war.
  5. Language cannot be suddenly invented. God had to cause it as in Babel.
  6. Language may vary into dialects over time, but its origins can be traced.
  7. As civilization progresses, new words are added to the original language.

Origin of the Language of the Hebrew People

Is it possible to trace the original language God gave at Eden?

To answer this very important question, we need to logically trace step-by-step backward starting from the only available and reliably established biblical and historical source.

Obviously, we can only start as far back with the only survivors of the Great Flood from the Old World into the New, and that was none other than Noah’s family. They very obviously brought along with them that very same language they used in the Old World and into the New World.

Please remember also that God spoke to Adam and Eve, and to the righteous patriarchs of old. And that prior to the confusion of languages which only happened at Babel, the biblical record tells us that the people had ONLYone language and one speech” (Genesis 11:1, 6).

With this very important clue, what then was that ONE LANGUAGE AND ONE SPEECH brought to the New World by Noah and his family?

Let us dig deeper and intelligently trace further back into history.

Noah had three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth (Genesis 9:18; 10:1). Eber (ancestor of the Hebrew people) through a third-generation son of Shem seems to have been given some importance by being mentioned first among all of Shem’s sons (Genesis 10:21, 24)! And there is a very important and significant reason for this as we will see later.

Understanding the Confusion of Languages at Babel

Early in our story flow, some will immediately interject with the confusion of languages at the Tower of Babel incident. But herein is a very important, crucial, and pivotal fact that most Bible scholars, theologians, and students have missed out entirely and have NOT correctly reckoned with, resulting in present-day confusion, ignorance, and even deception.

The Most Important Key During the Tower of Babel Incident

This very important pivotal key factor to correctly understand is WHERE the Semites (Shem and his descendants) went to settle in after the Flood, in direct contrast to WHERE Ham and Japheth and their respective descendants also settled in after the Flood.

Please take careful note that the more righteous Semites stayed AWAY from the plains of Shinar! Instead, they settled far toward the “eastern hill country” (Genesis 10:30, NIV). Because the Semites took NO part in the rebellious building project of the infamous tower of Babel led by Nimrod (Genesis 10:8-10),their original Semitic Hebrew language (Noah’s original language) has NOT become part of the massive language confusion and corruption to the extent that they no longer understood each other. This surprising event happened only at the Tower of Babel construction site, which was at the plains of Shinar (Genesis 11:1-9).

As an all-knowing, wise, and advance planner, God knows exactly how to spare his more righteous people, with the goal of preserving their original Hebrew Semitic language, which God used to interact with His Chosen People, and as the basic language used in writing the Holy Scriptures. And furthermore, these people with their language was destined to be the bloodline for many more generations until the coming of the Messiah, with their language in His day.

A Parallel Account to the “Plains of Shinar”

There is a parallel biblical account when we talk about the plains in contrast to the hill country. This is the story between Abram and Lot, in connection with their herdsmen’s strife for pasture land, wherein Abram offered Lot the first choice. Naturally, Lot chose the well-watered plains of Jordan (close to the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah), leaving Abram with the only available choice of taking the hilly terrain toward the Hebron mountains. Of course, we know the rest of the tragic story when Lot eventually moved his dwelling into Sodom (Genesis 13:5-18).

Other Proofs that Hebrew Was the Original Language at Eden

The Wikipedia article on the Hebrew language refers to some other extra-biblical sources such as:

Wikipedia article on the Adamic language. In essence, this article states:

Traditional Jewish exegesis such as Midrash (Genesis Rabbah 38) says that Adam spoke the Hebrew language because the names he called his wife [Woman] [was] actually “Isha” [which] means “taken out from man” (Genesis 2:23), and the name [Eve] [which was] actually “Chava” [or hawwa] means “mother of all living” (Genesis 3:20) only make sense in [the] Hebrew [language] (emphasis mine).

The article on the Tower of Babel in the Jewish Encyclopedia says this:

The confounding of the languages—before that they all had spoken Hebrew.

The Proof of the Name Adam

In the earliest part of the Book of Genesis, God created the first man from the dust of the ground (Genesis 2:7; 3:19b) and appropriately called him “Adam.” Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance numbers that word “Adam” as H121, which also means “[red] earth.” The etymology of that name Adam, which means earth or mud, makes sense only in the Hebrew language.

New Discovery: Hebrew Is the Oldest Alphabet

Douglas Petrovich — an archeologist, ancient-inscription specialist, and professor of Egyptian history — made recent headlines when he found solid proof that Hebrew is indeed the first (and oldest) alphabet, contrary to the opinion previously held by scholars that it was Phoenician.

The story was quickly picked up by the following news outlets (among others):

Conclusion at This Point

Based on the biblical and extra-biblical evidences presented, plus the logical analysis done here, the language given by God to Adam and Eve — which also was the only language in the Old World until the time of Noah, and which Noah’s family brought into the New World after the Great Flood — was no other than what we now call the HEBREW language.

The Life of Abraham and His Descendants

After Noah, the next important biblical personality God intimately dealt with was Abraham. By this time, the name Hebrew became interchangeably used with Abraham and his descendants.

Abram / Abraham and His Descendants Were Called “Hebrew”

Since God has a long-range plan for Abraham and his descendants, including the then-future coming of the Messiah through his own bloodline (Matthew 1:1), God blessed and specially set him apart as a family, including the language Abraham’s family spoke — which was Hebrew.

Therefore, Abraham, a descendant of Noah through Shem was known as “the Hebrew” (Genesis 14:13). Likewise, because of their distinctive language and fairer complexion, Abraham’s descendants were called “Hebrew” as Joseph and the Israelites who later immigrated into Egypt were often referred to in Egypt (Genesis 39:14, 17; 41:12). Significantly, all descendants of Abraham as a people were also called “Hebrew” (Exodus 1:15, 16, 19; Exodus 2:7, 11).

Like all of God’s prophets, the prophet Jonah identified himself as a Hebrew (Jonah 1:9).

Hebrew and Aramaic Are Close Semitic Sister Languages

Aram, one of the five sons of Shem is the ancestor of the Aramaic people (Genesis 10:22). Both Hebrew and Aramaic are derived from the original language of Shem, who in turn got it from their common ancestor Noah. This Noah simply spoke what was later called “Hebrew.” [It did not originally have a specific name because there was no other language then — thus it did not need any identifying name, being the only language known from the very beginning of humanity in the Old World.] Eventually both Hebrew and Aramaic became names for the respective languages of these two families, which are both considered SEMITIC languages.

Since Hebrew and Aramaic actually share the same number of 22 letters in their respective alphabets — with anciently similar character forms, plus using most words in common — they have been interchangeably referred to by historians as either Hebrew or Aramaic.

But even earlier in the record of Genesis, because they came from the same Semitic stock, the Hebrew and Aramaic languages were also associated with Syriac, since Laban (brother of Rebecca, uncle of Jacob) was called the Syrian (Genesis 31:20, 24). Even today, sometimes Hebrew and Aramaic are often referred to as Syriac. Notice the footnote on Page 723 of the Aramaic English New Testament (AENT), Fifth Edition, published by Netzari Press, edited by Andrew Gabriel Roth, where it says: “Whenever ‘Syriac’ is used, ‘Aramaic’ is intended.”

Even “Chaldean” Is Also a Semitic Language

Chaldean is mentioned dozens of time in the Bible and also has Semitic origins, like Hebrew and Aramaic. In fact, Abram’s ancestry lived in the land of the Chaldeans, and thus his origin was in the land of the Chaldees when God called him out of that land (Genesis 11:27-31). These people were influential even in Babylonia, as we will read later in the story of the prophet Daniel.

The Hebrew-Aramaic Languages Were Widely Spoken

Hebrew and Aramaic Were Known Even in the Assyrian Empire

After the fall of the great Egyptian Empire (with its agriculture and livestock decimated by the plagues, and its army destroyed at the Red Sea crossing in connection with Israel’s exodus from Egypt under Moses), Egypt ceased to be a great world-ruling empire since then.

The next empire which subjugated Israel was the Neo-Assyrian Empire which took captive the 10 northern tribes into Assyria. This was completed about 718 B.C., after very many years of deportations over a very long distance of about 1,250 miles (2,000 kilometers). Those deported northern tribes are presently or commonly known in history as the “Lost Ten Tribes of Israel.”

But what is most surprising and significant here, is the fact that even biblical testimony shows that the Assyrians were knowledgeable in both the Hebrew and the Aramaic languages (2 Kings 18:26-35; Isaiah 36:11-20)!

Not only biblical history, but even secular history attests to this fact, but which is being ignored or hidden by some historians in a vain effort to rewrite the history of these Semitic languages in favor of Greek. Notice what the Ancient History Encyclopedia writes about Assyria:

Tiglath Pileser III had introduced Aramaic to replace Akkadian as the lingua franca of the empire and, as Aramaic survived as a written language, this allowed later scholars to decipher Akkadian writings and then Sumerian. The Assyrian conquest of Mesopotamia, and the expansion of the empire throughout the Near East brought Aramaic to regions as near as Israel and as far as Greece and, in this way, Mesopotamian thought became infused with those cultures and a part of their literary and cultural heritage.

[NOTE: Some historians want us to believe that Greek was the lingua-franca. But this historical document says otherwise. Greece was then influenced instead by Aramaic!]

Hebrew and Aramaic Were Also Known in the Babylonian Empire

Following Assyria, the next world-ruling power then which conquered and took captive the remaining southern tribes of Israel (primarily Judah, Levi, and remnants of Simeon and Benjamin) was the Babylonian Empire. The Babylonians carted off these remnant southern tribes in a series of raids, starting sometime in 604 B.C. and said to have ended in 585 B.C.

Again, very significantly, Hebrew and Aramaic were also spoken far and wide — reaching even into the massive population of the very first world-ruling Babylonian Empire of King Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 2:36-38; 7:4).

Please remember that during the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel and his three friends were among the noble captives then. Eventually, Daniel gained prominence in all of Babylon.

Therefore, you will notice that the writings of the prophet Daniel contained very long passages in the Aramaic language (specifically starting with Daniel 2:4, KJV, where it states that Aramaic was also interchangeably known as Chaldean or Syriac). The Aramaic language was used by the prophet Daniel in his writings until Daniel 7:28 where his Aramaic language ends; then, the language of his writings reverted back to the original Hebrew language.

Aramaic Was Still a Language After the Post-Captivity Period

The last Babylonian king was eventually defeated by the Persians. Significantly, Persian King Cyrus the Great (Isaiah 44:29 to Isaiah 45:1-13) was inspired by God to declare the emancipation of the Jews with freedom to return back to their homeland in Israel in 539 B.C. Knowing that the Jews became destitute in their state of recent captivity, God somehow also inspired King Cyrus to be generous enough to even help in every possible way in the rebuilding project of the walls of the old city of Jerusalem.

But what is most significant here again concerning our language topic is that even after the Jews returned to their homeland, Hebrew and Aramaic were still their traditional languages!

These facts are consistent with what the NIV Study Bible states on page 864:

Ezra and Nehemiah were written in the form of late Hebrew with the exception of Ezr.4:8—6:18; 7:12—26, which were written in Aramaic, the international language during the Persian period (bold emphasis mine).

In fact, an actual statement written by Ezra describes the use of Aramaic script in the Aramaic language in a letter written to King Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7). This shows that the Aramaic language was still very much in common use in the empire even after the captivities.

Effect of the Greek Conquest Upon Israel By the Seleucid Empire

Now, let us look at a completely different scenario. Instead of being exiled out of their native land, this time the conquest and domination happened right in their own land of Israel.

Quoting from the Wikipedia article on the Seleucid Empire, we read:

The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic [Greek] state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian Empire [which was] vastly expanded by Alexander the Great (bracketed edits mine).

Such was the case with the Jewish population of the Seleucid empire; the Jews’ refusal to willingly Hellenize [adopt Greek culture] their religious beliefs or customs posed a significant problem which eventually led to war … [eventually] the Seleucids gradually tried to force Hellenization [force the Greek language and culture] upon the Jewish people in their [own] territory by outlawing Judaism. This eventually led to the revolt of the Jews led by the Maccabean family, under Seleucid control, which would later lead to the Jews achieving independence from the Seleucid [Greek] empire (bold emphases and bracketed edits mine).

NOTE: This Greek domination lasted for almost 250 years (312 to 63 BC), a very long rule which ended closest to the time of Christ on earth, compared to the previous Babylonian exile which at most lasted only for about 70 years (Jeremiah 25:11). However, in spite of such very much longer domination right within the very land of Israel itself, and contrary to the false claims of most historians, the Greek language did NOT take root among the Jewish people!

Conclusion at This Point

The popular claim by most historians that Greek was the “lingua franca” or common language in Israel and in the surrounding regions at the time of Christ is now simply shown to be a great FALSE DECEPTION, and also without any historical basis! (More details on this will be covered in succeeding articles.)

The Roman Empire Also Failed to Dislodge the Hebrew Language

The following are quotes from the Wikipedia article: History of the Jews in the Roman Empire:

The history of the Jews in the Roman Empire traces the interaction of Jews and Romans during the period of the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 476).

Augustus [Caesar] was … the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. [He was considered] the most effective and controversial leader in human history. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (bracketed edits mine).

The Roman general Pompey … conquered Jerusalem in 63 BC … Julius Caesar conquered Alexandria [in Egypt, first] c. 47 BC and [then, in a struggle for top supremacy in the Roman Empire] defeated Pompey in 45 BC. Under Julius Caesar, Judaism was officially recognised as a legal religion, a policy followed by the first Roman emperor, Augustus. Herod the Great was designated ‘King of the Jews’ by the Roman Senate in c. 40 BC (bracketed edits mine).

Jewish-Roman tensions resulted in several Jewish–Roman wars, 66-135 AD, which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple and institution of the Jewish Tax in 70 and Hadrian’s attempt to create a new Roman colony named Aelia Capitolina c. 130.

The final Jewish uprising was the Bar Kokhba Revolt during the reign of Emperor Hadrian.

NOTE: During the earlier Roman rule, which includes the time of Christ on earth, the Jews were given freedom to practice their religion. If Latin was not even enforced by the very powerful Roman Empire, how much more for Greek which was already very much earlier rejected by the Jews? Therefore, contrary to the false but popular claims, Greek was NOT a common language in Christ’s day. Hebrew and Aramaic continued to be the language of the Jewish people in Israel.

The Extent of the Hebrew/Aramaic Language in the First Century

In Jerusalem, during the arraignment of Christ, Peter was betrayed by his Galilean accent of the Hebrew/Aramaic language:

And a little later those who stood by came up and said to Peter, “Surely you also are one of them, for your speech betrays you (bold emphasis mine).

Matthew 26:73

The Apostle Paul spoke to the religious leadership in the Hebrew language:

So when he [the Roman Commander] had given him permission, Paul stood on the stairs and motioned with his hand to the people. And when there was a great silence, he spoke to them in the Hebrew language …(bracketed and bold emphasis mine)

Acts 21:40

And when they heard that he spoke to them in the Hebrew language, they kept all the more silent (bold emphasis mine).

Acts 22:2

Even the risen Christ spoke to Paul on his way to Damascus in the Hebrew language!

And when we all had fallen to the ground, I heard a voice speaking to me and saying in the Hebrew language, ‘Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me? It is hard for you to kick against the goads’ (bold emphasis mine).

Acts 26:14

Two Other Important Collective Events

These are recorded in the biblical account by the Gospel writer and historian Luke, which clearly shows the extent of the use of the Hebrew language during the first century:

A. The Holy Day of Pentecost in Jerusalem

This particular Day of Pentecost in Jerusalem was extensively described by the historian Luke. Surprisingly, while Peter and his fellow apostles spoke in the Galilean Hebrew/Aramaic tongue (Acts 2:7), much more than a dozen nations or language groups (Acts 2:8-11) commented that they “heard them speak in the language in which they were born” (Acts 2:8).

But the bigger questions are:

  1. Why would all these peoples from such varied language and nations even go to Jerusalem if they were not familiar with the common Hebrew and Aramaic languages of Jerusalem?
  2. How would they know the exact Festival dates if they did not understand the Hebrew language when reading the Hebrew Scriptures in their own respective cities?
  3. The fact that they did not even need any interpreter shows that they were familiar then with the common language in Jerusalem (AENT, page 724, fifth paragraph).

B. The Concluding Statement at the Jerusalem Conference

For Moses has had throughout many generations those who preach him in every city, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath (emphases mine).

Acts 15:21

NOTE: Obviously, the conference in Jerusalem was done in their Hebrew language. The writings of “Moses” referred to here was obviously the Hebrew Scriptures. The phrase “every city” refers to those located in all the Gentile nations where Jews have settled in (with proselytes among them) as mentioned in Acts 2:8-11. These were long-time Sabbath-keepers and were familiar with the Festival dates, enabling them to be at Jerusalem at the designated times.

The General Attitude of the Jews Toward the Greek Language

Some might contend that the writings of Moses referred to here was the Septuagint (Greek version). Copied below are the negative attitudes and comments on Greek among the Jews and Josephus.

Attitude Towards the Septuagint

Prof. Neubauer says, “we may boldly state that this Greek translation of the Bible [Septuagint] was unknown in Israel except to men in the schools … It is said in the Talmud that when the Greek translation of the Seventy appeared, there came darkness upon the earth, and that the day was as unfortunate for Israel, as that on which the golden calf was made” (pg. 67).

The fact that the Jews at Jerusalem who spoke Greek are called HELLENISTS, that is GRECIAN, in Acts vi. 1, and ix. 29, shows that their Greek speech made them a peculiar class quite distinct from the rest of the people (Norton, page 13) [emphases mine].

AENT, pages 724-725

Josephus’ Comment Concerning the Greek Language

The testimony of Jewish priest-historian Flavius Josephus [Hebrew name: Yosef ben Matityahu (A.D. 37-100)] reflects the common attitude of the Jews toward the Greeks.

I have also taken a great deal of pains to obtain the learning of the Greeks, and understand the elements of the Greek language … [yet] I cannot pronounce Greek with sufficient exactness; for our nation does NOT encourage those that learn the languages of many nations … because they [the Jews] look upon this sort of accomplishment as common [very lowly] … But they give him the testimony of being a wise man who is fully acquainted with our [Jewish] laws … [in contrast] as there have been many who have done their endeavors with great patience to obtain this [Greek] learning, there have yet hardly been so many as two or three that have succeeded therein, who were immediately well rewarded for their pains (emphases mine).

Antiquities of the Jews XX, XI

Summary

  1. Evidence points to ancient Hebrew as the original language in Eden.
  2. Shem’s family were not part of the rebellious building project at Babel.
  3. Thus, the Semitic sister languages were not part of the corrupted languages.
  4. Abraham’s bloodline (and language) is carried down to the life of the Messiah.
  5. Even after 400 years, the Egyptian language has not taken root in the Israelite nation.
  6. The Neo-Assyrians were found to be familiar with the Hebrew and Aramaic languages.
  7. The Babylonians were likewise familiar with the Hebrew and Aramaic languages.
  8. For 250 years, the Seleucid (Greek) Empire and language were rejected by the Jews.
  9. The influential Roman language (Latin) was not absorbed by the Jewish nation at all.
  10. Hebrew and Aramaic were extensively understood in the known world at that time.
  11. Greek was much disdained by Flavius Josephus and by most of the Hebrew people.
  12. While Paul was on his way to Damascus, even the risen Christ spoke to him in Hebrew.

Conclusion

Among the faithful Hebrews, history shows that they have always resisted any change in their religion, language, or culture — preferring to die in persecution or battle than to adopt a foreign one. Therefore, they have NEVER adopted Greek as one of their languages. Hebrew and Aramaic continued to be their traditional language at the time of Christ and the original apostles during the New Testament period, as confirmed by truly informed and unbiased historians. This honest statement of facts is obviously contrary to the false but popular claims that Greek was the “lingua franca” in the surrounding regions including Israel in the first century. Watch out for upcoming articles which will shed more light on this controversial topic.

7 Solid Reasons Why Romans Was NOT Written in A.D. 56-58


When was Paul’s epistle to the Romans really written?

You’ll be SHOCKED to discover how unsubstantiated claims glaringly fail to fit the biblical and historical evidence based on solid source documents.

Now, why should the ACCURACY of time-sensitive evidence based on biblical and historical facts be considered important in this case?

  1. If at all possible, we don’t tolerate blatant lies to proliferate.
  2. False assumptions and poor scholarship need correction.
  3. Unless corrected, dates in Romans look illogical and absurd.
  4. Leaving assumptions as is makes God’s Word unreliable.
  5. We want to demonstrate the total inerrancy of God’s Word.
  6. Getting the facts straight strengthens our faith in God’s promises.
  7. We are held responsible for “growing in grace and knowledge…

Therefore, here’s a second hard look at the facts most Bible students and scholars may have overlooked. Many of them have simply assumed a lot of things all these past decades. It’s time we review these common, popular beliefs and assumptions and validate them with the facts!

Commonly Accepted Assumptions

The NIV Study Bible, in its Introduction to the Book of Romans states:

The book was probably written in the early spring of A.D. 57. [emphasis, mine]

The International Bible Commentary, edited by F.F. Bruce, in its Introduction to Romans written by Leslie C. Allen, states:

It was probably during the winter of A.D. 56-7 that the apostle Paul in a house in Corinth wrote the letter to the Romans. His third missionary journey was drawing to a close… [emphases, mine]

The Annotated Study Bible (KJV) says:

The Epistle of Romans was written between A.D. 56 and 58 from Corinth during Paul’s third missionary journey. [emphases, mine]

In their introductions to the Book of Romans, these other Bibles state:

The MacArthur Study Bible:

Most likely A.D. 56… [emphasis, mine]

The Life Application Bible:

DATE WRITTEN: About A.D. 57 from Corinth…

The Ryrie Study Bible categorically dates the letter as 58 (A.D.).

You would notice that some Bible Scholars sadly often seem to copy [slightly] from each other’s opinions. Or they might have a common source of information which has not been verified.

But what is the TRUTH based on real evidence, logic, and independent research?

First of all, some Bible scholars believe that the Letter to the Romans was probably the very first Epistle Paul wrote at the latter part of the fifth decade in the first century (or almost 30 years since the resurrection of Christ?!) and that all the other epistles were written even much later?

How accurate are those beliefs? Please read on with an open mind to find out.

The Most Basic and Primary Consideration

Logically and obviously, Paul’s letter to the Romans should have been written and should have been read in Rome when all the people he was greeting (as listed in Romans chapter 16) were still residing in Rome; such as Priscilla and Aquila; of which this couple’s house was, in fact, their meeting place (Romans 16:5).

Secondly, the date of Paul’s letter should FIT within the established biblical and historical records and evidence; such as the following:

1. The Biblical and Historical Account of Luke

The careful Gospel Writer and Historian Luke records that during the reign of Emperor Claudius, there were two significant events affecting the Jews in the Roman Empire. These were:

  1. There was a severe famine in the entire Roman world then (Acts 11:28)
  2. Emperor Claudius ordered Jews to leave Rome in Italy (Acts 18:2).

(NOTE: These two events reckoned in tandem with each other help produce the precise year for Paul’s letter to the Romans to have been written, as we shall see later. Please read on.)

2. The Reign of Emperor Claudius (A.D. 41-54)

History records that Emperor Claudius was assassinated on the 13th of October AD 54. Therefore, Emperor Claudius could not have made any more decrees past the date of his assassination; which shows that Paul could not have written his Epistle in A.D. 57; which was too late.

3. The Expulsion of the Jews From Rome (A.D. 49)

As a result of Emperor Claudius’ order; Aquila and Priscilla, being both Jews soon left Italy, and thus they met the Apostle Paul in Corinth (Acts 18:1-2). Since the Church in Rome used to meet in their house; Paul’s letter to the Romans (if indeed written in 57 A.D.), would then be useless and irrelevant because this couple left Rome many years earlier (Romans 16:5).

4. Paul’s Meeting With Aquila and Priscilla

The meeting of Paul with Aquila and Priscilla in Corinth can happen ONLY on Paul’s Second Missionary Journey of which Bible scholars commonly date as 49 to 52 A.D. This stated date is very far from the alleged 57 A.D.!

(NOTE: Paul’s First Missionary Journey dated 46 to 48 A.D. is out of the question because Paul did not even reach Corinth in that particular journey. Likewise, Paul’s Third Missionary Journey is also out of the question because he did not pass by Ephesus then; the city where Aquila and Priscilla disembarked and took up residence therein (Acts 18:18-19).

(ADDED NOTE: Like in the mal-practice of Paleontology concerning the pre-assumed age of a certain rock strata; wherein the age of a certain creature is simply based on that strata; likewise, sadly some Bible scholars try to determine in advance the year for Paul’s letter (in this case, to the Romans), then try to fit that assumed year with the particular missionary journey (in this case, the third); even if the details do not fit the said description based on the Book of Acts.)

5. The Presence of Proconsul Gallio in Achaia

The tenure of Proconsul Gallio in Achaia (just across the isthmus from Corinth) is dated AD 51-52. NOTE: While Paul was in Corinth, there was a Jewish uproar against Paul, wherein Sosthenes became an innocent victim of beatings (Acts 18:12-17). This violent incident led Paul to decide to leave Corinth shortly after that incident, as described earlier (Acts 18:18).

Since Paul together with Aquila and Priscilla were in the city of Corinth while Proconsul Gallio was assigned in Achaia; wherein Gallio intervened in the riot against Paul; and since Gallio’s tenure was only until 52 A.D.; the commonly accepted year of 57 A.D. for the writing of Romans is just too far from the true reality when compared with recorded historical evidence.

6. The Nature of Paul’s Second Missionary Journey

The nature of Paul’s Second Missionary journey was when for the very first time, Paul reached the city of Corinth; which was dated by biblical historians to have occurred about A.D. 49 to 52. It was during this journey when Priscilla and Aquila joined Paul in leaving the city of Corinth. This trip going back to Syria was the first time Paul passed by Ephesus; where and when Priscilla and Aquila also disembarked (Acts 18:18-19). Sometime after leaving Ephesus, Paul sailed straight on to the port of Caesarea (Acts 18:22).

7. Great Famine During the Reign of Claudius

Another biblical prophetic event confirmed in the pages of history is the great famine during the reign of Emperor Claudius, which was predicted by Agabus as recorded in Acts 11:27-28.

The fourth century historian, [Paulus] Orosius mentioned this famine in Syria which occurred in 46 to 47 A.D. King Alfred of England translated Orosius’ work during the Middle Ages in a work called, “The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle” where quoting in part, it says: “A.D. 46, in this year, Claudius, the second Roman Emperor to invade Britain… This took place in the fourth year of his rule. In this same year, a great famine in Syria took place which Luke mentions in his book, the Acts of the Apostles…” [emphasis mine]

Roman historian Suetonius also mentions this famine in “Life of Claudius,” chapter 18, where he says, “There was a scarcity of food, which was the result of bad harvests that occurred during a span of several years.” [emphasis mine]

Roman historian, Tacitus also mentions the famine in his “Annals,” in chapter 11:4.

Jewish Priest-historian, Josephus, wrote in “Antiquities” chapter 1.3 to 2.5 about this famine during the time of Claudius Caesar. Josephus wrote that: “around this time, live queen Helena of Adiabene, along with her son Izates; who both began to follow the Jewish way, turning away from their past lifestyle… Her arrival was of great help to the masses in Jerusalem, for there was a famine in the land that overtook them, and many people died of starvation.

Because of their great wealth and influence, both queen Helena and her son Izates imported large quantities of grain from Alexandria plus dried figs from Cyprus to help stave off hunger. As a result, both the queen and her son were held in high esteem by the people of Jerusalem.

Likewise, the apostle Paul undertook a personal campaign to help the poor brethren in Jerusalem (Romans 15:25-26; 1 Corinthians 16:1-4). Paul even further wrote two whole chapters to the Corinthians encouraging them in the attitude of giving (2 Corinthians 8-9).

Additional Comments About Paul and the Romans

Neither Peter nor Paul previously went to Rome to evangelize. But we need to remember that the Jews, centuries earlier were already scattered throughout the known world and strictly kept their faith.

Therefore, on the Day of Pentecost, among the thousands who gathered in Jerusalem at that time, there were Jewish believers and proselytes coming also from Rome (Acts 2:10).

While Paul had always fondly expressed his desire to visit Rome (Acts 19:21b; Romans 1:11,13,15; 15:23-28), he continually failed; until he was sent there by the Roman government for trial because he “appealed to Caesar” (Acts 25:12).

NOTE: If Paul had never been to Rome, how did he know who were the members in that congregation? The solid answer to that question is that in addition to Aquila and Priscilla, a certain man from the Roman congregation named Tertius, left Rome much earlier and also went to Corinth. It was Tertius who claimed to have written (at least) that part of the letter for Paul (Romans 16:22).

Phoebe, from nearby Cenchrea, who seemed to have some familiarity with Rome in the past, and with perhaps some unfinished business to do, likely volunteered to carry Paul’s letter from Corinth to Rome (Romans 16:1-2).

Paul’s Arrest and Imprisonment

In connection with Paul’s arrest in Jerusalem, he was brought to Caesarea because of the plot against his life (Acts 23:12-35). But because Felix and Festus wanted to please the Jews, they left Paul in confinement there for two years (Acts 24:27; 25:9a). Finally, King Agrippa heard his case; but since Paul appealed to Caesar, he had to be brought to Rome (Acts 25:10-12; 26:32). Of course, after two years under house arrest in Rome (Acts 28:30); history shows that he was eventually beheaded under the order of Roman Emperor Nero (Fox’s Book of Martyrs, page 4).

Upon knowing his fatal sentence, Paul wrote his farewell to Timothy (2 Timothy 4:6-8).

Please note that after the death of Emperor Claudius, his immediate successor was Emperor Nero, a known Christian-hater, who blamed Christians for the fire he caused in Rome; and was also responsible for the deaths of both apostles Peter and Paul in Rome.

Status of the Church in Rome After Paul’s Letter

With Aquila and Priscilla and all Jews gone from Rome; with their home no longer available for meetings; plus, under the cruel rule of Emperor Nero who hated Christians; the Roman congregation was obviously disbanded. Most likely those who remained held on to Paul’s letter, and possibly even made more copies for themselves. Thus, Paul’s letter could not have been written in A.D. 57.

Summary of Facts and Conclusion

Paul’s Letter to the Romans was written and eventually received and read to them while all the members listed in Romans 16:3-15 were still meeting in the house of Aquila and Priscilla.

The date of the Jewish Expulsion from Rome is known to be A.D. 49; which can be reconciled with Gallio’s term in Achaia which cannot exceed A.D. 52, due to Gallio’s serious illness.

The great famine affecting Jerusalem was the result of several years of failed harvests which First Century historians dated as [starting] A.D. 46-47. Being a great famine, the effects lasted.

Taking all these historical facts into consideration, we can more accurately say that Paul’s Letter to the Romans was most likely written about A.D. 50. (This is very much earlier than what most scholars alleged to be A.D. 57.) This stated year can be further confirmed by the following facts:

This framework fits well before Roman Emperor Claudius was assassinated in A.D.54.

This also fits well with the framework of Paul’s Second Missionary Journey dated A.D. 49-52. By A.D. 50, Paul would have arrived in Corinth and had written his Epistle; and sent it to Rome through Phoebe. Emperor Claudius just previously issued the decree for the Expulsion of Jews when Paul’s letter arrived in Rome. This led Aquila and Priscilla to leave Rome. Thus, by about A.D. 51, this Jewish couple reached Corinth and met Paul. Sometime thereafter, the riot against Paul occurred wherein Proconsul Gallio intervened. Shortly after this violence, Paul, with Aquila and Priscilla left Corinth. This Jewish couple dropped off at Ephesus and began to reside there. After some time in Ephesus, Paul proceeded to Caesarea, thus completing this Second Missionary Journey by A.D. 52.

Thus, Paul’s letter to the Romans is better reckoned to be A.D. 50.

7 Shocking Reasons Why the Traditional Jesus Is NOT the Biblical Messiah


So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the WHOLE world; he was cast to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
~Revelation 12:9 (NKJV and all throughout)

To what extent has this infallible Scripture been fulfilled in our day — concerning the identity of the true Messiah?

Surprisingly, most people today have been deceived into believing in a counterfeit, fake Messiah called Jesus!

Read on to find out exactly how, and why.

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Has the Bible Been Tampered to Support a Certain Doctrine?


Unknown to most Christians today, there are important verses in the Bible that have been secretly tampered with — a fact that has been kept hidden from mass media publications and from public exposure for hundreds of years — until now…

Most Christians are expectedly too trusting in believing every word they read in the Bible (and rightly so). Thus, they are completely unaware about certain secret manipulations or tampering of some Bible verses done hundreds of years ago, to support a doctrinal belief which otherwise absolutely has no other biblical support.

But since the prophet Daniel predicted that knowledge shall increase in these end times, these long-hidden secret manipulations are now being finally revealed and exposed publicly! (Daniel 12:4).

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Science Proves When Each 19-Year Time Cycle Really Begins


WHEN do we accurately start the 19-Year Time Cycle count?

The answer to this question is crucial and very important. WHY?

There’s a truism that if our starting entry is in error, all that follows is already affected by that original error. For instance, turning into a wrong road or adding a series of numbers.

Most corporate churches of God and other groups follow the modern Hebrew Calendar (a.k.a. The Calculated Rabbinical Calendar) to determine when to observe God’s Holy Days. But did you know that the present Hebrew Calendar is ignorant as to WHEN and WHERE to accurately and authoritatively anchor the START of each 19-Year Time Cycle in relation to earth’s position with the sun and moon in their respective orbits?

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The Shocking Corruptions in the Present Hebrew Calendar


Part 4 of 4 in the Calendar Series

It has been said that anything God (YHWH) has given has been somehow corrupted or polluted by man. Try to think of any exception to this observation or statement, if any?

Sadly, even God’s Sacred Calendar is NO exception. After reading Part 3 of this Calendar Series, we now focus on HOW this otherwise inspired, God-given calendar — trusted by God’s chosen people, churches of God, and other groups — has not been spared from massive corruptions. How, and why? Please read on to the end of this article.

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Disturbing Problems of the Modern Hebrew Calendar


Part 3 of 4 in the Calendar Series

After reading the first two articles in this calendar series, many may come to the conclusion that only the present Hebrew Calendar is reliable and perfect. They suppose that it was derived from God (YHWH) at creation and that the Jews were faithful custodians of the calendar. Because of these two assumptions, most churches today, among other groups, have simply adopted it “as is” without any questions.

But are these simple assumptions really true? Has the present Hebrew Calendar been spared from being tampered with through all the centuries past? It’s time we honestly examined biblical facts plus the record of history concerning the present Hebrew Calendar.

But before we begin, please consider this important fact. Since Satan is the greatest DECEIVER of all mankind, do you think he wasn’t wise and crafty enough to have spared such calendar from his clever corruptions and manipulations? How do we know? And how can we really prove it? Please read on to the end of this article series.

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Why All the Confusion in This World’s Various Calendars?


Part 2 of 4 in the Calendar Series

Unknown to most people in this world, there are about 82 other calendars that have been used through the centuries, with most of them still being used even to this very day!

Last week, I wrote an article titled, The Surprising Origins of our Modern Calendar. While the Roman Calendar is presently the most popular, we need to be aware that there are several dozen other calendars that the peoples in various ages of this world have used, and may still be using today. Of course, some were more recently invented than others.

Why?

But the most important question is: Why this great proliferation and confusion of various calendars in this one single world of ours? Surprisingly, do you suspect the cause is similar to the great proliferation of various religions in this world today! Therefore, could all these have some common denominator among them? Please read on to find out.

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Roman calendar

The Surprising Origins of Our Modern Calendar


Part 1 of 4 in the Calendar Series

As we come to the end of this Roman calendar year and face the beginning of a new year, it’s good to take a brief but serious look into this modern calendar system that we have so faithfully followed and highly regarded.

Unknown to most, our calendar had a very crude, unreliable, and a pagan-influenced beginning. Since it has gone through a number of transformations by certain authorities in the past, could it be similarly (and badly) affected in the future?

A Glaring Anomaly

Let us first look at a very obviously disturbing fact, but simply ignored by almost all today. Did you know that the months September, October, November, and December were originally — based on their Latin names — the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth months of the year respectively? Did you also know that there were only 10 calendar months in the Roman year to begin with?

By adding January and February much later in its history, it became 12 months. But alas, the four earlier-stated months suddenly became the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth months — contradicting their original ordinal place names in the Roman calendar! In other words, for centuries, they have been moved two months away from their original places! But did anyone, or any authority, even care to correct it to this day? Surprisingly, this world has remained blind to this fact!

Questions That Need Answers

How did that ever happen? How did the Romans reckon or account for those originally missing months? What are the possible implications of those changes? Were there other changes? And what were the main reasons for those massive changes? If the authorities then orchestrated those monumental changes and the masses remained blinded, would some authority in the future also initiate changes and the whole world will simply agree and say nothing to correct it? What does Bible prophecy predict on this subject? Please read on to the end.

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